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                                                 THE
                                 CORPORATION CODE
                                              OF THE
                                          PHILIPPINES
                               [Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]


                                               TITLE I
                                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

Definitions and Classifications

Section 1. Title of the Code. - This Code shall be known as "The Corporation Code of the
Philippines".
Sec. 2. Corporation defined. - A corporation is an artificial being created by operation of law,
having the right of succession and the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by
law or incident to its existence.
Sec. 3. Classes of corporations. - Corporations formed or organized under this Code may be
stock or non-stock corporations. Corporations which have capital stock divided into shares and
are authorized to distribute to the holders of such shares dividends or allotments of the surplus
profits on the basis of the shares held are stock corporations. All other corporations are
non-stock corporations.
Sec. 4. Corporations created by special laws or charters. - Corporations created by special laws
or charters shall be governed primarily by the provisions of the special law or charter creating
them or applicable to them, supplemented by the provisions of this Code, insofar as they are
applicable.
Sec. 5. Corporators and incorporators, stockholders and members. - Corporators are those who
compose a corporation, whether as stockholders or as members. Incorporators are those
stockholders or members mentioned in the articles of incorporation as originally forming and
composing the corporation and who are signatories thereof.
Corporators in a stock corporation are called stockholders or shareholders. Corporators in a
non-stock corporation are called members.
Sec. 6. Classification of shares. - The shares of stock of stock corporations may be divided into
classes or series of shares, or both, any of which classes or series of shares may have such
rights, privileges or restrictions as may be stated in the articles of incorporation: Provided, That
no share may be deprived of voting rights except those classified and issued as "preferred" or
"redeemable" shares, unless otherwise provided in this Code: Provided, further, That there shall
always be a class or series of shares which have complete voting rights. Any or all of the shares
or series of shares may have a par value or have no par value as may be provided for in the
articles of incorporation: Provided, however, That banks, trust companies, insurance
companies, public utilities, and building and loan associations shall not be permitted to issue
no-par value shares of stock.
Preferred shares of stock issued by any corporation may be given preference in the distribution
of the assets of the corporation in case of liquidation and in the distribution of dividends, or such
other preferences as may be stated in the articles of incorporation which are not violative of the
provisions of this Code: Provided, That preferred shares of stock may be issued only with a
stated par value. The board of directors, where authorized in the articles of incorporation, may
fix the terms and conditions of preferred shares of stock or any series thereof: Provided, That
such terms and conditions shall be effective upon the filing of a certificate thereof with the
Securities and Exchange Commission.
Shares of capital stock issued without par value shall be deemed fully paid and non-assessable
and the holder of such shares shall not be liable to the corporation or to its creditors in respect
thereto: Provided; That shares without par value may not be issued for a consideration less
than the value of five (P5.00) pesos per share: Provided, further, That the entire consideration
received by the corporation for its no-par value shares shall be treated as capital and shall not
be available for distribution as dividends.
A corporation may, furthermore, classify its shares for the purpose of insuring compliance with
constitutional or legal requirements.
Except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation and stated in the certificate of
stock, each share shall be equal in all respects to every other share.
Where the articles of incorporation provide for non-voting shares in the cases allowed by this
Code, the holders of such shares shall nevertheless be entitled to vote on the following matters:
1. Amendment of the articles of incorporation;
2. Adoption and amendment of by-laws;
3. Sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the
corporate property;
4. Incurring, creating or increasing bonded indebtedness;
5. Increase or decrease of capital stock;
6. Merger or consolidation of the corporation with another corporation or other corporations;
7. Investment of corporate funds in another corporation or business in accordance with this
Code; and
8. Dissolution of the corporation.
Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, the vote necessary to approve a
particular corporate act as provided in this Code shall be deemed to refer only to stocks with
voting rights.
Sec. 7. Founders' shares. - Founders' shares classified as such in the articles of incorporation
may be given certain rights and privileges not enjoyed by the owners of other stocks, provided
that where the exclusive right to vote and be voted for in the election of directors is granted, it
must be for a limited period not to exceed five (5) years subject to the approval of the Securities
and Exchange Commission. The five-year period shall commence from the date of the aforesaid
approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Sec. 8. Redeemable shares. - Redeemable shares may be issued by the corporation when
expressly so provided in the articles of incorporation. They may be purchased or taken up by
the corporation upon the expiration of a fixed period, regardless of the existence of unrestricted
retained earnings in the books of the corporation, and upon such other terms and conditions as
may be stated in the articles of incorporation, which terms and conditions must also be stated in
the certificate of stock representing said shares.
Sec. 9. Treasury shares. - Treasury shares are shares of stock which have been issued and
fully paid for, but subsequently reacquired by the issuing corporation by purchase, redemption,
donation or through some other lawful means. Such shares may again be disposed of for a
reasonable price fixed by the board of directors.
TITLE II
INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION
OF PRIVATE CORPORATIONS
Sec. 10. Number and qualifications of incorporators. - Any number of natural persons not less
than five (5) but not more than fifteen (15), all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents
of the Philippines, may form a private corporation for any lawful purpose or purposes. Each of
the incorporators of s stock corporation must own or be a subscriber to at least one (1) share of
the capital stock of the corporation.
Sec. 11. Corporate term. - A corporation shall exist for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years
from the date of incorporation unless sooner dissolved or unless said period is extended. The
corporate term as originally stated in the articles of incorporation may be extended for periods
not exceeding fifty (50) years in any single instance by an amendment of the articles of
incorporation, in accordance with this Code; Provided, That no extension can be made earlier
than five (5) years prior to the original or subsequent expiry date(s) unless there are justifiable
reasons for an earlier extension as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange
Commission.
Sec. 12. Minimum capital stock required of stock corporations. - Stock corporations incorporated
under this Code shall not be required to have any minimum authorized capital stock except as
otherwise specifically provided for by special law, and subject to the provisions of the following
section.
Sec. 13. Amount of capital stock to be subscribed and paid for the purposes of incorporation. -
At least twenty-five percent (25%) of the authorized capital stock as stated in the articles of
incorporation must be subscribed at the time of incorporation, and at least twenty-five (25%) per
cent of the total subscription must be paid upon subscription, the balance to be payable on a
date or dates fixed in the contract of subscription without need of call, or in the absence of a
fixed date or dates, upon call for payment by the board of directors: Provided, however, That in
no case shall the paid-up capital be less than five Thousand (P5,000.00) pesos.
Sec. 14. Contents of the articles of incorporation. - All corporations organized under this code
shall file with the Securities and Exchange Commission articles of incorporation in any of the
official languages duly signed and acknowledged by all of the incorporators, containing
substantially the following matters, except as otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law:
1. The name of the corporation;
2. The specific purpose or purposes for which the corporation is being incorporated. Where a
corporation has more than one stated purpose, the articles of incorporation shall state which is
the primary purpose and which is/are he secondary purpose or purposes: Provided, That a
non-stock corporation may not include a purpose which would change or contradict its nature as
such;
3. The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be located, which must be within
the Philippines;
4. The term for which the corporation is to exist;
5. The names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators;
6. The number of directors or trustees, which shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen
(15);
7. The names, nationalities and residences of persons who shall act as directors or trustees
until the first regular directors or trustees are duly elected and qualified in accordance with this
Code;
8. If it be a stock corporation, the amount of its authorized capital stock in lawful money of the
Philippines, the number of shares into which it is divided, and in case the share are par value
shares, the par value of each, the names, nationalities and residences of the original
subscribers, and the amount subscribed and paid by each on his subscription, and if some or all
of the shares are without par value, such fact must be stated;
9. If it be a non-stock corporation, the amount of its capital, the names, nationalities and
residences of the contributors and the amount contributed by each; and
10. Such other matters as are not inconsistent with law and which the incorporators may deem
necessary and convenient.
The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept the articles of incorporation of any
stock corporation unless accompanied by a sworn statement of the Treasurer elected by the
subscribers showing that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the authorized capital stock of the
corporation has been subscribed, and at least twenty-five (25%) of the total subscription has
been fully paid to him in actual cash and/or in property the fair valuation of which is equal to at
least twenty-five (25%) percent of the said subscription, such paid-up capital being not less than
five thousand (P5,000.00) pesos.
Sec. 15. Forms of Articles of Incorporation. - Unless otherwise prescribed by special law, articles
of incorporation of all domestic corporations shall comply substantially with the following form:

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION
OF
__________________________
(Name of Corporation)
KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:
The undersigned incorporators, all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents of the
Philippines, have this day voluntarily agreed to form a (stock) (non-stock) corporation under the
laws of the Republic of the Philippines;
AND WE HEREBY CERTIFY:
FIRST: That the name of said corporation shall be
".............................................., INC. or CORPORATION";
SECOND: That the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is incorporated are: (If there
is more than one purpose, indicate primary and secondary purposes);
THIRD: That the principal office of the corporation is located in the City/Municipality of
............................................., Province of .................................................., Philippines;
FOURTH: That the term for which said corporation is to exist is ................ years from and after
the date of issuance of the certificate of incorporation;
FIFTH: That the names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators of the corporation are
as follows:
NAME             NATIONALITY             RESIDENCE
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
SIXTH: That the number of directors or trustees of the corporation shall be .............; and the
names, nationalities and residences of the first directors or trustees of the corporation are as
follows:
NAME             NATIONALITY             RESIDENCE
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
..................................... ..................................... .....................................
SEVENTH: That the authorized capital stock of the corporation is
................................................. (P......................) PESOS in lawful money of the Philippines,
divided into ............... shares with the par value of ................................... (P.......................)
Pesos per share.
(In case all the share are without par value):
That the capital stock of the corporation is ........................... shares without par value. (In case
some shares have par value and some are without par value): That the capital stock of said
corporation consists of ........................ shares of which ....................... shares are of the par
value of .............................. (P.....................) PESOS each, and of which ................................
shares are without par value.
EIGHTH: That at least twenty five (25%) per cent of the authorized capital stock above stated
has been subscribed as follows:
Name of Subscriber Nationality No of Shares Amount
Subscribed Subscribed
.................................. .................... ........................ .......................
.................................. .................... ........................ .......................
.................................. .................... ........................ .......................
.................................. .................... ........................ .......................
.................................. .................... ........................ .......................
NINTH: That the above-named subscribers have paid at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the
total subscription as follows:
Name of Subscriber Amount Subscribed Total Paid-In
................................... ...................................... ...............................
................................... ...................................... ...............................
................................... ...................................... ...............................
................................... ...................................... ...............................
................................... ...................................... ...............................
(Modify Nos. 8 and 9 if shares are with no par value. In case the corporation is non-stock, Nos.
7, 8 and 9 of the above articles may be modified accordingly, and it is sufficient if the articles
state the amount of capital or money contributed or donated by specified persons, stating the
names, nationalities and residences of the contributors or donors and the respective amount
given by each.)
TENTH: That ....................................... has been elected by the subscribers as Treasurer of the
Corporation to act as such until his successor is duly elected and qualified in accordance with
the by-laws, and that as such Treasurer, he has been authorized to receive for and in the name
and for the benefit of the corporation, all subscription (or fees) or contributions or donations
paid or given by the subscribers or members.
ELEVENTH: (Corporations which will engage in any business or activity reserved for Filipino
citizens shall provide the following):
"No transfer of stock or interest which shall reduce the ownership of Filipino citizens to less than
the required percentage of the capital stock as provided by existing laws shall be allowed or
permitted to recorded in the proper books of the corporation and this restriction shall be
indicated in all stock certificates issued by the corporation."
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto signed these Articles of Incorporation, this
................... day of .............................., 19 ........... in the City/Municipality of
........................................, Province of ................................................., Republic of the
Philippines.
............................................ .............................................
............................................ .............................................
................................................
(Names and signatures of the incorporators)
SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:
............................................ .............................................
(Notarial Acknowledgment)

TREASURER'S AFFIDAVIT
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES )
CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF ) S.S.
PROVINCE OF )
I, ...................................., being duly sworn, depose and say:
That I have been elected by the subscribers of the corporation as Treasurer thereof, to act as
such until my successor has been duly elected and qualified in accordance with the by-laws of
the corporation, and that as such Treasurer, I hereby certify under oath that at least 25% of the
authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed and at least 25% of the total
subscription has been paid, and received by me, in cash or property, in the amount of not less
than P5,000.00, in accordance with the Corporation Code.
.......................................
(Signature of Treasurer)
SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN to before me, a Notary Public, for and in the City/Municipality of
.................................. Province of .........................................., this ............. day of
........................., 19 ........; by ............................................ with Res. Cert. No. .....................
issued at ................. on ......................, 19 ..........

NOTARY PUBLIC
My commission expires on ..........................., 19 ........
Doc. No. ...............;
Page No. ...............;
Book No. ..............;
Series of 19..... (7a)
Sec. 16. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. - Unless otherwise prescribed by this Code or
by special law, and for legitimate purposes, any provision or matter stated in the articles of
incorporation may be amended by a majority vote of the board of directors or trustees and the
vote or written assent of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
outstanding capital stock, without prejudice to the appraisal right of dissenting stockholders in
accordance with the provisions of this Code, or the vote or written assent of at least two-thirds
(2/3) of the members if it be a non-stock corporation.
The original and amended articles together shall contain all provisions required by law to be set
out in the articles of incorporation. Such articles, as amended shall be indicated by
underscoring the change or changes made, and a copy thereof duly certified under oath by the
corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees stating the fact that said
amendment or amendments have been duly approved by the required vote of the stockholders
or members, shall be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The amendments shall take effect upon their approval by the Securities and Exchange
Commission or from the date of filing with the said Commission if not acted upon within six (6)
months from the date of filing for a cause not attributable to the corporation.
Sec. 17. Grounds when articles of incorporation or amendment may be rejected or disapproved.
- The Securities and Exchange Commission may reject the articles of incorporation or
disapprove any amendment thereto if the same is not in compliance with the requirements of
this Code: Provided, That the Commission shall give the incorporators a reasonable time within
which to correct or modify the objectionable portions of the articles or amendment. The following
are grounds for such rejection or disapproval:
1. That the articles of incorporation or any amendment thereto is not substantially in accordance
with the form prescribed herein;
2. That the purpose or purposes of the corporation are patently unconstitutional, illegal,
immoral, or contrary to government rules and regulations;
3. That the Treasurer's Affidavit concerning the amount of capital stock subscribed and/or paid
if false;
4. That the percentage of ownership of the capital stock to be owned by citizens of the
Philippines has not been complied with as required by existing laws or the Constitution.
No articles of incorporation or amendment to articles of incorporation of banks, banking and
quasi-banking institutions, building and loan associations, trust companies and other financial
intermediaries, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions, and other
corporations governed by special laws shall be accepted or approved by the Commission unless
accompanied by a favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency to the
effect that such articles or amendment is in accordance with law.
Sec. 18. Corporate name. - No corporate name may be allowed by the Securities and Exchange
Commission if the proposed name is identical or deceptively or confusingly similar to that of any
existing corporation or to any other name already protected by law or is patently deceptive,
confusing or contrary to existing laws. When a change in the corporate name is approved, the
Commission shall issue an amended certificate of incorporation under the amended name.
Sec. 19. Commencement of corporate existence. - A private corporation formed or organized
under this Code commences to have corporate existence and juridical personality and is
deemed incorporated from the date the Securities and Exchange Commission issues a
certificate of incorporation under its official seal; and thereupon the incorporators,
stockholders/members and their successors shall constitute a body politic and corporate under
the name stated in the articles of incorporation for the period of time mentioned therein, unless
said period is extended or the corporation is sooner dissolved in accordance with law.
Sec. 20. De facto corporations. - The due incorporation of any corporation claiming in good faith
to be a corporation under this Code, and its right to exercise corporate powers, shall not be
inquired into collaterally in any private suit to which such corporation may be a party. Such
inquiry may be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto proceeding.
Sec. 21. Corporation by estoppel. - All persons who assume to act as a corporation knowing it to
be without authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all debts, liabilities and
damages incurred or arising as a result thereof: Provided, however, That when any such
ostensible corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a corporation or on any tort
committed by it as such, it shall not be allowed to use as a defense its lack of corporate
personality.
On who assumes an obligation to an ostensible corporation as such, cannot resist performance
thereof on the ground that there was in fact no corporation.
Sec. 22. Effects on non-use of corporate charter and continuous inoperation of a corporation. -
If a corporation does not formally organize and commence the transaction of its business or the
construction of its works within two (2) years from the date of its incorporation, its corporate
powers cease and the corporation shall be deemed dissolved. However, if a corporation has
commenced the transaction of its business but subsequently becomes continuously inoperative
for a period of at least five (5) years, the same shall be a ground for the suspension or
revocation of its corporate franchise or certificate of incorporation.
This provision shall not apply if the failure to organize, commence the transaction of its
businesses or the construction of its works, or to continuously operate is due to causes beyond
the control of the corporation as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange
Commission.
TITLE III
BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES/OFFICERS
Sec. 23. The board of directors or trustees. - Unless otherwise provided in this Code, the
corporate powers of all corporations formed under this Code shall be exercised, all business
conducted and all property of such corporations controlled and held by the board of directors or
trustees to be elected from among the holders of stocks, or where there is no stock, from among
the members of the corporation, who shall hold office for one (1) year until their successors are
elected and qualified.
Every director must own at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation of which he
is a director, which share shall stand in his name on the books of the corporation. Any director
who ceases to be the owner of at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation of
which he is a director shall thereby cease to be a director. Trustees of non-stock corporations
must be members thereof. a majority of the directors or trustees of all corporations organized
under this Code must be residents of the Philippines.
Sec. 24. Election of directors or trustees. - At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be
present, either in person or by representative authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of a
majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the
members entitled to vote. The election must be by ballot if requested by any voting stockholder
or member. In stock corporations, every stockholder entitled to vote shall have the right to vote
in person or by proxy the number of shares of stock standing, at the time fixed in the by-laws, in
his own name on the stock books of the corporation, or where the by-laws are silent, at the time
of the election; and said stockholder may vote such number of shares for as many persons as
there are directors to be elected or he may cumulate said shares and give one candidate as
many votes as the number of directors to be elected multiplied by the number of his shares shall
equal, or he may distribute them on the same principle among as many candidates as he shall
see fit: Provided, That the total number of votes cast by him shall not exceed the number of
shares owned by him as shown in the books of the corporation multiplied by the whole number
of directors to be elected: Provided, however, That no delinquent stock shall be voted. Unless
otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or in the by-laws, members of corporations
which have no capital stock may cast as many votes as there are trustees to be elected but may
not cast more than one vote for one candidate. Candidates receiving the highest number of
votes shall be declared elected. Any meeting of the stockholders or members called for an
election may adjourn from day to day or from time to time but not sine die or indefinitely if, for
any reason, no election is held, or if there not present or represented by proxy, at the meeting,
the owners of a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a
majority of the member entitled to vote.
Sec. 25. Corporate officers, quorum. - Immediately after their election, the directors of a
corporation must formally organize by the election of a president, who shall be a director, a
treasurer who may or may not be a director, a secretary who shall be a resident and citizen of
the Philippines, and such other officers as may be provided for in the by-laws. Any two (2) or
more positions may be held concurrently by the same person, except that no one shall act as
president and secretary or as president and treasurer at the same time.
The directors or trustees and officers to be elected shall perform the duties enjoined on them by
law and the by-laws of the corporation. Unless the articles of incorporation or the by-laws
provide for a greater majority, a majority of the number of directors or trustees as fixed in the
articles of incorporation shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of corporate business, and
every decision of at least a majority of the directors or trustees present at a meeting at which
there is a quorum shall be valid as a corporate act, except for the election of officers which shall
require the vote of a majority of all the members of the board.
Directors or trustees cannot attend or vote by proxy at board meetings.
Sec. 26. Report of election of directors, trustees and officers. - Within thirty (30) days after the
election of the directors, trustees and officers of the corporation, the secretary, or any other
officer of the corporation, shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the names,
nationalities and residences of the directors, trustees, and officers elected. Should a director,
trustee or officer die, resign or in any manner cease to hold office, his heirs in case of his death,
the secretary, or any other officer of the corporation, or the director, trustee or officer himself,
shall immediately report such fact to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Sec. 27. Disqualification of directors, trustees or officers. - No person convicted by final
judgment of an offense punishable by imprisonment for a period exceeding six (6) years, or a
violation of this Code committed within five (5) years prior to the date of his election or
appointment, shall qualify as a director, trustee or officer of any corporation.
Sec. 28. Removal of directors or trustees. - Any director or trustee of a corporation may be
removed from office by a vote of the stockholders holding or representing at least two-thirds
(2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or if the corporation be a non-stock corporation, by a vote
of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members entitled to vote: Provided, That such removal shall
take place either at a regular meeting of the corporation or at a special meeting called for the
purpose, and in either case, after previous notice to stockholders or members of the corporation
of the intention to propose such removal at the meeting. A special meeting of the stockholders
or members of a corporation for the purpose of removal of directors or trustees, or any of them,
must be called by the secretary on order of the president or on the written demand of the
stockholders representing or holding at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or, if it
be a non-stock corporation, on the written demand of a majority of the members entitled to vote.
Should the secretary fail or refuse to call the special meeting upon such demand or fail or
refuse to give the notice, or if there is no secretary, the call for the meeting may be addressed
directly to the stockholders or members by any stockholder or member of the corporation
signing the demand. Notice of the time and place of such meeting, as well as of the intention to
propose such removal, must be given by publication or by written notice prescribed in this Code.
Removal may be with or without cause: Provided, That removal without cause may not be used
to deprive minority stockholders or members of the right of representation to which they may be
entitled under Section 24 of this Code.
Sec. 29. Vacancies in the office of director or trustee. - Any vacancy occurring in the board of
directors or trustees other than by removal by the stockholders or members or by expiration of
term, may be filled by the vote of at least a majority of the remaining directors or trustees, if still
constituting a quorum; otherwise, said vacancies must be filled by the stockholders in a regular
or special meeting called for that purpose. A director or trustee so elected to fill a vacancy shall
be elected only or the unexpired term of his predecessor in office.
A directorship or trusteeship to be filled by reason of an increase in the number of directors or
trustees shall be filled only by an election at a regular or at a special meeting of stockholders or
members duly called for the purpose, or in the same meeting authorizing the increase of
directors or trustees if so stated in the notice of the meeting.
Sec. 30. Compensation of directors. - In the absence of any provision in the by-laws fixing their
compensation, the directors shall not receive any compensation, as such directors, except for
reasonable pre diems: Provided, however, That any such compensation other than per diems
may be granted to directors by the vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of
the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special stockholders' meeting. In no case shall the
total yearly compensation of directors, as such directors, exceed ten (10%) percent of the net
income before income tax of the corporation during the preceding year.
Sec. 31. Liability of directors, trustees or officers. - Directors or trustees who willfully and
knowingly vote for or assent to patently unlawful acts of the corporation or who are guilty of
gross negligence or bad faith in directing the affairs of the corporation or acquire any personal
or pecuniary interest in conflict with their duty as such directors or trustees shall be liable jointly
and severally for all damages resulting therefrom suffered by the corporation, its stockholders
or members and other persons.
When a director, trustee or officer attempts to acquire or acquires, in violation of his duty, any
interest adverse to the corporation in respect of any matter which has been reposed in him in
confidence, as to which equity imposes a disability upon him to deal in his own behalf, he shall
be liable as a trustee for the corporation and must account for the profits which otherwise would
have accrued to the corporation.
Sec. 32. Dealings of directors, trustees or officers with the corporation. - A contract of the
corporation with one or more of its directors or trustees or officers is voidable, at the option of
such corporation, unless all the following conditions are present:
1. That the presence of such director or trustee in the board meeting in which the contract was
approved was not necessary to constitute a quorum for such meeting;
2. That the vote of such director or trustee was nor necessary for the approval of the contract;
3. That the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances; and
4. That in case of an officer, the contract has been previously authorized by the board of
directors.
Where any of the first two conditions set forth in the preceding paragraph is absent, in the case
of a contract with a director or trustee, such contract may be ratified by the vote of the
stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of at least
two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting called for the purpose: Provided, That full
disclosure of the adverse interest of the directors or trustees involved is made at such meeting:
Provided, however, That the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances.
Sec. 33. Contracts between corporations with interlocking directors. - Except in cases of fraud,
and provided the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances, a contract between
two or more corporations having interlocking directors shall not be invalidated on that ground
alone: Provided, That if the interest of the interlocking director in one corporation is substantial
and his interest in the other corporation or corporations is merely nominal, he shall be subject to
the provisions of the preceding section insofar as the latter corporation or corporations are
concerned.
Stockholdings exceeding twenty (20%) percent of the outstanding capital stock shall be
considered substantial for purposes of interlocking directors.
Sec. 34. Disloyalty of a director. - Where a director, by virtue of his office, acquires for himself a
business opportunity which should belong to the corporation, thereby obtaining profits to the
prejudice of such corporation, he must account to the latter for all such profits by refunding the
same, unless his act has been ratified by a vote of the stockholders owning or representing at
least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock. This provision shall be applicable,
notwithstanding the fact that the director risked his own funds in the venture.
Sec. 35. Executive committee. - The by-laws of a corporation may create an executive
committee, composed of not less than three members of the board, to be appointed by the
board. Said committee may act, by majority vote of all its members, on such specific matters
within the competence of the board, as may be delegated to it in the by-laws or on a majority
vote of the board, except with respect to: (1) approval of any action for which shareholders'
approval is also required; (2) the filing of vacancies in the board; (3) the amendment or repeal
of by-laws or the adoption of new by-laws; (4) the amendment or repeal of any resolution of the
board which by its express terms is not so amendable or repealable; and (5) a distribution of
cash dividends to the shareholders.

TITLE IV
POWERS OF CORPORATIONS
Sec. 36. Corporate powers and capacity. - Every corporation incorporated under this Code has
the power and capacity:
1. To sue and be sued in its corporate name;
2. Of succession by its corporate name for the period of time stated in the articles of
incorporation and the certificate of incorporation;
3. To adopt and use a corporate seal;
4. To amend its articles of incorporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code;
5. To adopt by-laws, not contrary to law, morals, or public policy, and to amend or repeal the
same in accordance with this Code;
6. In case of stock corporations, to issue or sell stocks to subscribers and to sell stocks to
subscribers and to sell treasury stocks in accordance with the provisions of this Code; and to
admit members to the corporation if it be a non-stock corporation;
7. To purchase, receive, take or grant, hold, convey, sell, lease, pledge, mortgage and
otherwise deal with such real and personal property, including securities and bonds of other
corporations, as the transaction of the lawful business of the corporation may reasonably and
necessarily require, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and the Constitution;
8. To enter into merger or consolidation with other corporations as provided in this Code;
9. To make reasonable donations, including those for the public welfare or for hospital,
charitable, cultural, scientific, civic, or similar purposes: Provided, That no corporation, domestic
or foreign, shall give donations in aid of any political party or candidate or for purposes of
partisan political activity;
10. To establish pension, retirement, and other plans for the benefit of its directors, trustees,
officers and employees; and
11. To exercise such other powers as may be essential or necessary to carry out its purpose or
purposes as stated in the articles of incorporation.
Sec. 37. Power to extend or shorten corporate term. - A private corporation may extend or
shorten its term as stated in the articles of incorporation when approved by a majority vote of
the board of directors or trustees and ratified at a meeting by the stockholders representing at
least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
members in case of non-stock corporations. Written notice of the proposed action and of the
time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of
residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post
office with postage prepaid, or served personally: Provided, That in case of extension of
corporate term, any dissenting stockholder may exercise his appraisal right under the conditions
provided in this code. (n)
Sec. 38. Power to increase or decrease capital stock; incur, create or increase bonded
indebtedness. - No corporation shall increase or decrease its capital stock or incur, create or
increase any bonded indebtedness unless approved by a majority vote of the board of directors
and, at a stockholder's meeting duly called for the purpose, two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding
capital stock shall favor the increase or diminution of the capital stock, or the incurring, creating
or increasing of any bonded indebtedness. Written notice of the proposed increase or
diminution of the capital stock or of the incurring, creating, or increasing of any bonded
indebtedness and of the time and place of the stockholder's meeting at which the proposed
increase or diminution of the capital stock or the incurring or increasing of any bonded
indebtedness is to be considered, must be addressed to each stockholder at his place of
residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post
office with postage prepaid, or served personally.
A certificate in duplicate must be signed by a majority of the directors of the corporation and
countersigned by the chairman and the secretary of the stockholders' meeting, setting forth:
(1) That the requirements of this section have been complied with;
(2) The amount of the increase or diminution of the capital stock;
(3) If an increase of the capital stock, the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no-par
stock thereof actually subscribed, the names, nationalities and residences of the persons
subscribing, the amount of capital stock or number of no-par stock subscribed by each, and the
amount paid by each on his subscription in cash or property, or the amount of capital stock or
number of shares of no-par stock allotted to each stock-holder if such increase is for the
purpose of making effective stock dividend therefor authorized;
(4) Any bonded indebtedness to be incurred, created or increased;
(5) The actual indebtedness of the corporation on the day of the meeting;
(6) The amount of stock represented at the meeting; and
(7) The vote authorizing the increase or diminution of the capital stock, or the incurring, creating
or increasing of any bonded indebtedness.
Any increase or decrease in the capital stock or the incurring, creating or increasing of any
bonded indebtedness shall require prior approval of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
One of the duplicate certificates shall be kept on file in the office of the corporation and the
other shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and attached to the original
articles of incorporation. From and after approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission
and the issuance by the Commission of its certificate of filing, the capital stock shall stand
increased or decreased and the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness
authorized, as the certificate of filing may declare: Provided, That the Securities and Exchange
Commission shall not accept for filing any certificate of increase of capital stock unless
accompanied by the sworn statement of the treasurer of the corporation lawfully holding office at
the time of the filing of the certificate, showing that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of such
increased capital stock has been subscribed and that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the
amount subscribed has been paid either in actual cash to the corporation or that there has
been transferred to the corporation property the valuation of which is equal to twenty-five (25%)
percent of the subscription: Provided, further, That no decrease of the capital stock shall be
approved by the Commission if its effect shall prejudice the rights of corporate creditors.
Non-stock corporations may incur or create bonded indebtedness, or increase the same, with
the approval by a majority vote of the board of trustees and of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
members in a meeting duly called for the purpose.
Bonds issued by a corporation shall be registered with the Securities and Exchange
Commission, which shall have the authority to determine the sufficiency of the terms thereof.
(17a)
Sec. 39. Power to deny pre-emptive right. - All stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy
pre-emptive right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any class, in proportion to
their respective shareholdings, unless such right is denied by the articles of incorporation or an
amendment thereto: Provided, That such pre-emptive right shall not extend to shares to be
issued in compliance with laws requiring stock offerings or minimum stock ownership by the
public; or to shares to be issued in good faith with the approval of the stockholders representing
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, in exchange for property needed for corporate
purposes or in payment of a previously contracted debt.
Sec. 40. Sale or other disposition of assets. - Subject to the provisions of existing laws on illegal
combinations and monopolies, a corporation may, by a majority vote of its board of directors or
trustees, sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all
of its property and assets, including its goodwill, upon such terms and conditions and for such
consideration, which may be money, stocks, bonds or other instruments for the payment of
money or other property or consideration, as its board of directors or trustees may deem
expedient, when authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3)
of the outstanding capital stock, or in case of non-stock corporation, by the vote of at least to
two-thirds (2/3) of the members, in a stockholder's or member's meeting duly called for the
purpose. Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place of the meeting shall be
addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of
the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, or
served personally: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder may exercise his appraisal right
under the conditions provided in this Code.
A sale or other disposition shall be deemed to cover substantially all the corporate property and
assets if thereby the corporation would be rendered incapable of continuing the business or
accomplishing the purpose for which it was incorporated.
After such authorization or approval by the stockholders or members, the board of directors or
trustees may, nevertheless, in its discretion, abandon such sale, lease, exchange, mortgage,
pledge or other disposition of property and assets, subject to the rights of third parties under
any contract relating thereto, without further action or approval by the stockholders or members.
Nothing in this section is intended to restrict the power of any corporation, without the
authorization by the stockholders or members, to sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or
otherwise dispose of any of its property and assets if the same is necessary in the usual and
regular course of business of said corporation or if the proceeds of the sale or other disposition
of such property and assets be appropriated for the conduct of its remaining business.
In non-stock corporations where there are no members with voting rights, the vote of at least a
majority of the trustees in office will be sufficient authorization for the corporation to enter into
any transaction authorized by this section. (28 1/2a)
Sec. 41. Power to acquire own shares. - A stock corporation shall have the power to purchase
or acquire its own shares for a legitimate corporate purpose or purposes, including but not
limited to the following cases: Provided, That the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings
in its books to cover the shares to be purchased or acquired:
1. To eliminate fractional shares arising out of stock dividends;
2. To collect or compromise an indebtedness to the corporation, arising out of unpaid
subscription, in a delinquency sale, and to purchase delinquent shares sold during said sale;
and
3. To pay dissenting or withdrawing stockholders entitled to payment for their shares under the
provisions of this Code. (n)
Sec. 42. Power to invest corporate funds in another corporation or business or for any other
purpose. - Subject to the provisions of this Code, a private corporation may invest its funds in
any other corporation or business or for any purpose other than the primary purpose for which it
was organized when approved by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and ratified by
the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or by at
least two thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of non-stock corporations, at a stockholder's or
member's meeting duly called for the purpose. Written notice of the proposed investment and
the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his
place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in
the post office with postage prepaid, or served personally: Provided, That any dissenting
stockholder shall have appraisal right as provided in this Code: Provided, however, That where
the investment by the corporation is reasonably necessary to accomplish its primary purpose as
stated in the articles of incorporation, the approval of the stockholders or members shall not be
necessary. (17 1/2a)
Sec. 43. Power to declare dividends. - The board of directors of a stock corporation may
declare dividends out of the unrestricted retained earnings which shall be payable in cash, in
property, or in stock to all stockholders on the basis of outstanding stock held by them:
Provided, That any cash dividends due on delinquent stock shall first be applied to the unpaid
balance on the subscription plus costs and expenses, while stock dividends shall be withheld
from the delinquent stockholder until his unpaid subscription is fully paid: Provided, further, That
no stock dividend shall be issued without the approval of stockholders representing not less
than two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special meeting duly called
for the purpose. (16a)
Stock corporations are prohibited from retaining surplus profits in excess of one hundred
(100%) percent of their paid-in capital stock, except: (1) when justified by definite corporate
expansion projects or programs approved by the board of directors; or (2) when the corporation
is prohibited under any loan agreement with any financial institution or creditor, whether local or
foreign, from declaring dividends without its/his consent, and such consent has not yet been
secured; or (3) when it can be clearly shown that such retention is necessary under special
circumstances obtaining in the corporation, such as when there is need for special reserve for
probable contingencies. (n)
Sec. 44. Power to enter into management contract. - No corporation shall conclude a
management contract with another corporation unless such contract shall have been approved
by the board of directors and by stockholders owning at least the majority of the outstanding
capital stock, or by at least a majority of the members in the case of a non-stock corporation, of
both the managing and the managed corporation, at a meeting duly called for the purpose:
Provided, That (1) where a stockholder or stockholders representing the same interest of both
the managing and the managed corporations own or control more than one-third (1/3) of the
total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote of the managing corporation; or (2) where a
majority of the members of the board of directors of the managing corporation also constitute a
majority of the members of the board of directors of the managed corporation, then the
management contract must be approved by the stockholders of the managed corporation
owning at least two-thirds (2/3) of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, or by at
least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of a non-stock corporation. No management
contract shall be entered into for a period longer than five years for any one term.
The provisions of the next preceding paragraph shall apply to any contract whereby a
corporation undertakes to manage or operate all or substantially all of the business of another
corporation, whether such contracts are called service contracts, operating agreements or
otherwise: Provided, however, That such service contracts or operating agreements which
relate to the exploration, development, exploitation or utilization of natural resources may be
entered into for such periods as may be provided by the pertinent laws or regulations. (n)
Sec. 45. Ultra vires acts of corporations. - No corporation under this Code shall possess or
exercise any corporate powers except those conferred by this Code or by its articles of
incorporation and except such as are necessary or incidental to the exercise of the powers so
conferred. (n)
TITLE V
BY LAWS
Sec. 46. Adoption of by-laws. - Every corporation formed under this Code must, within one (1)
month after receipt of official notice of the issuance of its certificate of incorporation by the
Securities and Exchange Commission, adopt a code of by-laws for its government not
inconsistent with this Code. For the adoption of by-laws by the corporation the affirmative vote
of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or of at
least a majority of the members in case of non-stock corporations, shall be necessary. The
by-laws shall be signed by the stockholders or members voting for them and shall be kept in the
principal office of the corporation, subject to the inspection of the stockholders or members
during office hours. A copy thereof, duly certified to by a majority of the directors or trustees
countersigned by the secretary of the corporation, shall be filed with the Securities and
Exchange Commission which shall be attached to the original articles of incorporation.
Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, by-laws may be adopted and filed
prior to incorporation; in such case, such by-laws shall be approved and signed by all the
incorporators and submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission, together with the
articles of incorporation.
In all cases, by-laws shall be effective only upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange
Commission of a certification that the by-laws are not inconsistent with this Code.
The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept for filing the by-laws or any
amendment thereto of any bank, banking institution, building and loan association, trust
company, insurance company, public utility, educational institution or other special corporations
governed by special laws, unless accompanied by a certificate of the appropriate government
agency to the effect that such by-laws or amendments are in accordance with law. (20a)
Sec. 47. Contents of by-laws. - Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, this Code, other
special laws, and the articles of incorporation, a private corporation may provide in its by-laws
for:
1. The time, place and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the
directors or trustees;
2. The time and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the
stockholders or members;
3. The required quorum in meetings of stockholders or members and the manner of voting
therein;
4. The form for proxies of stockholders and members and the manner of voting them;
5. The qualifications, duties and compensation of directors or trustees, officers and employees;
6. The time for holding the annual election of directors of trustees and the mode or manner of
giving notice thereof;
7. The manner of election or appointment and the term of office of all officers other than
directors or trustees;
8. The penalties for violation of the by-laws;
9. In the case of stock corporations, the manner of issuing stock certificates; and
10. Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or convenient transaction of its
corporate business and affairs. (21a)
Sec. 48. Amendments to by-laws. - The board of directors or trustees, by a majority vote
thereof, and the owners of at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or at least a
majority of the members of a non-stock corporation, at a regular or special meeting duly called
for the purpose, may amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws. The owners of
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a
non-stock corporation may delegate to the board of directors or trustees the power to amend or
repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws: Provided, That any power delegated to the board of
directors or trustees to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws shall be considered
as revoked whenever stockholders owning or representing a majority of the outstanding capital
stock or a majority of the members in non-stock corporations, shall so vote at a regular or
special meeting.
Whenever any amendment or new by-laws are adopted, such amendment or new by-laws shall
be attached to the original by-laws in the office of the corporation, and a copy thereof, duly
certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees, shall
be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission the same to be attached to the original
articles of incorporation and original by-laws.
The amended or new by-laws shall only be effective upon the issuance by the Securities and
Exchange Commission of a certification that the same are not inconsistent with this Code. (22a
and 23a)
TITLE VI
MEETINGS
Sec. 49. Kinds of meetings. - Meetings of directors, trustees, stockholders, or members may be
regular or special. (n)
Sec. 50. Regular and special meetings of stockholders or members. - Regular meetings of
stockholders or members shall be held annually on a date fixed in the by-laws, or if not so fixed,
on any date in April of every year as determined by the board of directors or trustees: Provided,
That written notice of regular meetings shall be sent to all stockholders or members of record at
least two (2) weeks prior to the meeting, unless a different period is required by the by-laws.
Special meetings of stockholders or members shall be held at any time deemed necessary or as
provided in the by-laws: Provided, however, That at least one (1) week written notice shall be
sent to all stockholders or members, unless otherwise provided in the by-laws.
Notice of any meeting may be waived, expressly or impliedly, by any stockholder or member.
Whenever, for any cause, there is no person authorized to call a meeting, the Secretaries and
Exchange Commission, upon petition of a stockholder or member on a showing of good cause
therefor, may issue an order to the petitioning stockholder or member directing him to call a
meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice required by this Code or by the by-laws. The
petitioning stockholder or member shall preside thereat until at least a majority of the
stockholders or members present have been chosen one of their number as presiding officer.
(24, 26)
Sec. 51. Place and time of meetings of stockholders or members. - Stockholders' or members'
meetings, whether regular or special, shall be held in the city or municipality where the principal
office of the corporation is located, and if practicable in the principal office of the corporation:
Provided, That Metro Manila shall, for purposes of this section, be considered a city or
municipality.
Notice of meetings shall be in writing, and the time and place thereof stated therein.
All proceedings had and any business transacted at any meeting of the stockholders or
members, if within the powers or authority of the corporation, shall be valid even if the meeting
be improperly held or called, provided all the stockholders or members of the corporation are
present or duly represented at the meeting. (24 and 25)
Sec. 52. Quorum in meetings. - Unless otherwise provided for in this Code or in the by-laws, a
quorum shall consist of the stockholders representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock
or a majority of the members in the case of non-stock corporations. (n)
Sec. 53. Regular and special meetings of directors or trustees. - Regular meetings of the board
of directors or trustees of every corporation shall be held monthly, unless the by-laws provide
otherwise.
Special meetings of the board of directors or trustees may be held at any time upon the call of
the president or as provided in the by-laws.
Meetings of directors or trustees of corporations may be held anywhere in or outside of the
Philippines, unless the by-laws provide otherwise. Notice of regular or special meetings stating
the date, time and place of the meeting must be sent to every director or trustee at least one (1)
day prior to the scheduled meeting, unless otherwise provided by the by-laws. A director or
trustee may waive this requirement, either expressly or impliedly. (n)
Sec. 54. Who shall preside at meetings. - The president shall preside at all meetings of the
directors or trustee as well as of the stockholders or members, unless the by-laws provide
otherwise. (n)
Sec. 55. Right to vote of pledgors, mortgagors, and administrators. - In case of pledged or
mortgaged shares in stock corporations, the pledgor or mortgagor shall have the right to attend
and vote at meetings of stockholders, unless the pledgee or mortgagee is expressly given by
the pledgor or mortgagor such right in writing which is recorded on the appropriate corporate
books. (n)
Executors, administrators, receivers, and other legal representatives duly appointed by the
court may attend and vote in behalf of the stockholders or members without need of any written
proxy. (27a)
Sec. 56. Voting in case of joint ownership of stock. - In case of shares of stock owned jointly by
two or more persons, in order to vote the same, the consent of all the co-owners shall be
necessary, unless there is a written proxy, signed by all the co-owners, authorizing one or some
of them or any other person to vote such share or shares: Provided, That when the shares are
owned in an "and/or" capacity by the holders thereof, any one of the joint owners can vote said
shares or appoint a proxy therefor. (n)
Sec. 57. Voting right for treasury shares. - Treasury shares shall have no voting right as long as
such shares remain in the Treasury. (n)
Sec. 58. Proxies. - Stockholders and members may vote in person or by proxy in all meetings of
stockholders or members. Proxies shall in writing, signed by the stockholder or member and filed
before the scheduled meeting with the corporate secretary. Unless otherwise provided in the
proxy, it shall be valid only for the meeting for which it is intended. No proxy shall be valid and
effective for a period longer than five (5) years at any one time. (n)
Sec. 59. Voting trusts. - One or more stockholders of a stock corporation may create a voting
trust for the purpose of conferring upon a trustee or trustees the right to vote and other rights
pertaining to the shares for a period not exceeding five (5) years at any time: Provided, That in
the case of a voting trust specifically required as a condition in a loan agreement, said voting
trust may be for a period exceeding five (5) years but shall automatically expire upon full
payment of the loan. A voting trust agreement must be in writing and notarized, and shall specify
the terms and conditions thereof. A certified copy of such agreement shall be filed with the
corporation and with the Securities and Exchange Commission; otherwise, said agreement is
ineffective and unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock covered by the voting trust
agreement shall be canceled and new ones shall be issued in the name of the trustee or
trustees stating that they are issued pursuant to said agreement. In the books of the
corporation, it shall be noted that the transfer in the name of the trustee or trustees is made
pursuant to said voting trust agreement.
The trustee or trustees shall execute and deliver to the transferors voting trust certificates,
which shall be transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as certificates of stock.
The voting trust agreement filed with the corporation shall be subject to examination by any
stockholder of the corporation in the same manner as any other corporate book or record:
Provided, That both the transferor and the trustee or trustees may exercise the right of
inspection of all corporate books and records in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
Any other stockholder may transfer his shares to the same trustee or trustees upon the terms
and conditions stated in the voting trust agreement, and thereupon shall be bound by all the
provisions of said agreement.
No voting trust agreement shall be entered into for the purpose of circumventing the law against
monopolies and illegal combinations in restraint of trade or used for purposes of fraud.
Unless expressly renewed, all rights granted in a voting trust agreement shall automatically
expire at the end of the agreed period, and the voting trust certificates as well as the certificates
of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees shall thereby be deemed canceled and new
certificates of stock shall be reissued in the name of the transferors.
The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy unless the agreement provides otherwise.
(36a)
TITLE VII
STOCKS AND STOCKHOLDERS
Sec. 60. Subscription contract. - Any contract for the acquisition of unissued stock in an existing
corporation or a corporation still to be formed shall be deemed a subscription within the
meaning of this Title, notwithstanding the fact that the parties refer to it as a purchase or some
other contract. (n)
Sec. 61. Pre-incorporation subscription. - A subscription for shares of stock of a corporation still
to be formed shall be irrevocable for a period of at least six (6) months from the date of
subscription, unless all of the other subscribers consent to the revocation, or unless the
incorporation of said corporation fails to materialize within said period or within a longer period
as may be stipulated in the contract of subscription: Provided, That no pre-incorporation
subscription may be revoked after the submission of the articles of incorporation to the
Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)
Sec. 62. Considering for stocks. - Stocks shall not be issued for a consideration less than the
par or issued price thereof. Consideration for the issuance of stock may be any or a
combination of any two or more of the following:
1. Actual cash paid to the corporation;
2. Property, tangible or intangible, actually received by the corporation and necessary or
convenient for its use and lawful purposes at a fair valuation equal to the par or issued value of
the stock issued;
3. Labor performed for or services actually rendered to the corporation;
4. Previously incurred indebtedness of the corporation;
5. Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings to stated capital; and
6. Outstanding shares exchanged for stocks in the event of reclassification or conversion.
Where the consideration is other than actual cash, or consists of intangible property such as
patents of copyrights, the valuation thereof shall initially be determined by the incorporators or
the board of directors, subject to approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Shares of stock shall not be issued in exchange for promissory notes or future service.
The same considerations provided for in this section, insofar as they may be applicable, may be
used for the issuance of bonds by the corporation.
The issued price of no-par value shares may be fixed in the articles of incorporation or by the
board of directors pursuant to authority conferred upon it by the articles of incorporation or the
by-laws, or in the absence thereof, by the stockholders representing at least a majority of the
outstanding capital stock at a meeting duly called for the purpose. (5 and 16)
Sec. 63. Certificate of stock and transfer of shares. - The capital stock of stock corporations
shall be divided into shares for which certificates signed by the president or vice president,
countersigned by the secretary or assistant secretary, and sealed with the seal of the
corporation shall be issued in accordance with the by-laws. Shares of stock so issued are
personal property and may be transferred by delivery of the certificate or certificates endorsed
by the owner or his attorney-in-fact or other person legally authorized to make the transfer. No
transfer, however, shall be valid, except as between the parties, until the transfer is recorded in
the books of the corporation showing the names of the parties to the transaction, the date of the
transfer, the number of the certificate or certificates and the number of shares transferred.
No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any unpaid claim shall be transferable in
the books of the corporation. (35)
Sec. 64. Issuance of stock certificates. - No certificate of stock shall be issued to a subscriber
until the full amount of his subscription together with interest and expenses (in case of
delinquent shares), if any is due, has been paid. (37)
Sec. 65. Liability of directors for watered stocks. - Any director or officer of a corporation
consenting to the issuance of stocks for a consideration less than its par or issued value or for a
consideration in any form other than cash, valued in excess of its fair value, or who, having
knowledge thereof, does not forthwith express his objection in writing and file the same with the
corporate secretary, shall be solidarily, liable with the stockholder concerned to the corporation
and its creditors for the difference between the fair value received at the time of issuance of the
stock and the par or issued value of the same. (n)
Sec. 66. Interest on unpaid subscriptions. - Subscribers for stock shall pay to the corporation
interest on all unpaid subscriptions from the date of subscription, if so required by, and at the
rate of interest fixed in the by-laws. If no rate of interest is fixed in the by-laws, such rate shall be
deemed to be the legal rate. (37)
Sec. 67. Payment of balance of subscription. - Subject to the provisions of the contract of
subscription, the board of directors of any stock corporation may at any time declare due and
payable to the corporation unpaid subscriptions to the capital stock and may collect the same or
such percentage thereof, in either case with accrued interest, if any, as it may deem necessary.
Payment of any unpaid subscription or any percentage thereof, together with the interest
accrued, if any, shall be made on the date specified in the contract of subscription or on the
date stated in the call made by the board. Failure to pay on such date shall render the entire
balance due and payable and shall make the stockholder liable for interest at the legal rate on
such balance, unless a different rate of interest is provided in the by-laws, computed from such
date until full payment. If within thirty (30) days from the said date no payment is made, all
stocks covered by said subscription shall thereupon become delinquent and shall be subject to
sale as hereinafter provided, unless the board of directors orders otherwise. (38)
Sec. 68. Delinquency sale. - The board of directors may, by resolution, order the sale of
delinquent stock and shall specifically state the amount due on each subscription plus all
accrued interest, and the date, time and place of the sale which shall not be less than thirty (30)
days nor more than sixty (60) days from the date the stocks become delinquent.
Notice of said sale, with a copy of the resolution, shall be sent to every delinquent stockholder
either personally or by registered mail. The same shall furthermore be published once a week
for two (2) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the province or city where
the principal office of the corporation is located.
Unless the delinquent stockholder pays to the corporation, on or before the date specified for
the sale of the delinquent stock, the balance due on his subscription, plus accrued interest,
costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, or unless the board of directors otherwise orders,
said delinquent stock shall be sold at public auction to such bidder who shall offer to pay the full
amount of the balance on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of
advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share.
The stock so purchased shall be transferred to such purchaser in the books of the corporation
and a certificate for such stock shall be issued in his favor. The remaining shares, if any, shall
be credited in favor of the delinquent stockholder who shall likewise be entitled to the issuance
of a certificate of stock covering such shares.
Should there be no bidder at the public auction who offers to pay the full amount of the balance
on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale,
for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share, the corporation may, subject to the
provisions of this Code, bid for the same, and the total amount due shall be credited as paid in
full in the books of the corporation. Title to all the shares of stock covered by the subscription
shall be vested in the corporation as treasury shares and may be disposed of by said
corporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
Sec. 69. When sale may be questioned. - No action to recover delinquent stock sold can be
sustained upon the ground of irregularity or defect in the notice of sale, or in the sale itself of
the delinquent stock, unless the party seeking to maintain such action first pays or tenders to
the party holding the stock the sum for which the same was sold, with interest from the date of
sale at the legal rate; and no such action shall be maintained unless it is commenced by the
filing of a complaint within six (6) months from the date of sale. (47a)
Sec. 70. Court action to recover unpaid subscription. - Nothing in this Code shall prevent the
corporation from collecting by action in a court of proper jurisdiction the amount due on any
unpaid subscription, with accrued interest, costs and expenses. (49a)
Sec. 71. Effect of delinquency. - No delinquent stock shall be voted for be entitled to vote or to
representation at any stockholder's meeting, nor shall the holder thereof be entitled to any of
the rights of a stockholder except the right to dividends in accordance with the provisions of this
Code, until and unless he pays the amount due on his subscription with accrued interest, and
the costs and expenses of advertisement, if any. (50a)
Sec. 72. Rights of unpaid shares. - Holders of subscribed shares not fully paid which are not
delinquent shall have all the rights of a stockholder. (n)
Sec. 73. Lost or destroyed certificates. - The following procedure shall be followed for the
issuance by a corporation of new certificates of stock in lieu of those which have been lost,
stolen or destroyed:
1. The registered owner of a certificate of stock in a corporation or his legal representative shall
file with the corporation an affidavit in triplicate setting forth, if possible, the circumstances as to
how the certificate was lost, stolen or destroyed, the number of shares represented by such
certificate, the serial number of the certificate and the name of the corporation which issued the
same. He shall also submit such other information and evidence which he may deem necessary;
2. After verifying the affidavit and other information and evidence with the books of the
corporation, said corporation shall publish a notice in a newspaper of general circulation
published in the place where the corporation has its principal office, once a week for three (3)
consecutive weeks at the expense of the registered owner of the certificate of stock which has
been lost, stolen or destroyed. The notice shall state the name of said corporation, the name of
the registered owner and the serial number of said certificate, and the number of shares
represented by such certificate, and that after the expiration of one (1) year from the date of the
last publication, if no contest has been presented to said corporation regarding said certificate
of stock, the right to make such contest shall be barred and said corporation shall cancel in its
books the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed and issue in lieu thereof
new certificate of stock, unless the registered owner files a bond or other security in lieu thereof
as may be required, effective for a period of one (1) year, for such amount and in such form and
with such sureties as may be satisfactory to the board of directors, in which case a new
certificate may be issued even before the expiration of the one (1) year period provided herein:
Provided, That if a contest has been presented to said corporation or if an action is pending in
court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or
destroyed, the issuance of the new certificate of stock in lieu thereof shall be suspended until
the final decision by the court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has
been lost, stolen or destroyed.
Except in case of fraud, bad faith, or negligence on the part of the corporation and its officers,
no action may be brought against any corporation which shall have issued certificate of stock in
lieu of those lost, stolen or destroyed pursuant to the procedure above-described. (R. A. 201a)
TITLE VIII
CORPORATE BOOKS AND RECORDS
Sec. 74. Books to be kept; stock transfer agent. - Every corporation shall keep and carefully
preserve at its principal office a record of all business transactions and minutes of all meetings
of stockholders or members, or of the board of directors or trustees, in which shall be set forth
in detail the time and place of holding the meeting, how authorized, the notice given, whether
the meeting was regular or special, if special its object, those present and absent, and every act
done or ordered done at the meeting. Upon the demand of any director, trustee, stockholder or
member, the time when any director, trustee, stockholder or member entered or left the meeting
must be noted in the minutes; and on a similar demand, the yeas and nays must be taken on
any motion or proposition, and a record thereof carefully made. The protest of any director,
trustee, stockholder or member on any action or proposed action must be recorded in full on his
demand.
The records of all business transactions of the corporation and the minutes of any meetings
shall be open to inspection by any director, trustee, stockholder or member of the corporation at
reasonable hours on business days and he may demand, writing, for a copy of excerpts from
said records or minutes, at his expense.
Any officer or agent of the corporation who shall refuse to allow any director, trustees,
stockholder or member of the corporation to examine and copy excerpts from its records or
minutes, in accordance with the provisions of this Code, shall be liable to such director, trustee,
stockholder or member for damages, and in addition, shall be guilty of an offense which shall be
punishable under Section 144 of this Code: Provided, That if such refusal is made pursuant to a
resolution or order of the board of directors or trustees, the liability under this section for such
action shall be imposed upon the directors or trustees who voted for such refusal: and Provided,
further, That it shall be a defense to any action under this section that the person demanding to
examine and copy excerpts from the corporation's records and minutes has improperly used any
information secured through any prior examination of the records or minutes of such corporation
or of any other corporation, or was not acting in good faith or for a legitimate purpose in making
his demand.
Stock corporations must also keep a book to be known as the "stock and transfer book", in
which must be kept a record of all stocks in the names of the stockholders alphabetically
arranged; the installments paid and unpaid on all stock for which subscription has been made,
and the date of payment of any installment; a statement of every alienation, sale or transfer of
stock made, the date thereof, and by and to whom made; and such other entries as the by-laws
may prescribe. The stock and transfer book shall be kept in the principal office of the
corporation or in the office of its stock transfer agent and shall be open for inspection by any
director or stockholder of the corporation at reasonable hours on business days.
No stock transfer agent or one engaged principally in the business of registering transfers of
stocks in behalf of a stock corporation shall be allowed to operate in the Philippines unless he
secures a license from the Securities and Exchange Commission and pays a fee as may be
fixed by the Commission, which shall be renewable annually: Provided, That a stock corporation
is not precluded from performing or making transfer of its own stocks, in which case all the rules
and regulations imposed on stock transfer agents, except the payment of a license fee herein
provided, shall be applicable. (51a and 32a; B. P. No. 268.)
Sec. 75. Right to financial statements. - Within ten (10) days from receipt of a written request of
any stockholder or member, the corporation shall furnish to him its most recent financial
statement, which shall include a balance sheet as of the end of the last taxable year and a profit
or loss statement for said taxable year, showing in reasonable detail its assets and liabilities and
the result of its operations.
At the regular meeting of stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees shall
present to such stockholders or members a financial report of the operations of the corporation
for the preceding year, which shall include financial statements, duly signed and certified by an
independent certified public accountant.
However, if the paid-up capital of the corporation is less than P50,000.00, the financial
statements may be certified under oath by the treasurer or any responsible officer of the
corporation. (n)
TITLE IX
MERGER AND CONSOLIDATION
Sec. 76. Plan or merger of consolidation. - Two or more corporations may merge into a single
corporation which shall be one of the constituent corporations or may consolidate into a new
single corporation which shall be the consolidated corporation.
The board of directors or trustees of each corporation, party to the merger or consolidation,
shall approve a plan of merger or consolidation setting forth the following:
1. The names of the corporations proposing to merge or consolidate, hereinafter referred to as
the constituent corporations;
2. The terms of the merger or consolidation and the mode of carrying the same into effect;
3. A statement of the changes, if any, in the articles of incorporation of the surviving corporation
in case of merger; and, with respect to the consolidated corporation in case of consolidation, all
the statements required to be set forth in the articles of incorporation for corporations organized
under this Code; and
4. Such other provisions with respect to the proposed merger or consolidation as are deemed
necessary or desirable. (n)
Sec. 77. Stockholder's or member's approval. - Upon approval by majority vote of each of the
board of directors or trustees of the constituent corporations of the plan of merger or
consolidation, the same shall be submitted for approval by the stockholders or members of each
of such corporations at separate corporate meetings duly called for the purpose. Notice of such
meetings shall be given to all stockholders or members of the respective corporations, at least
two (2) weeks prior to the date of the meeting, either personally or by registered mail. Said
notice shall state the purpose of the meeting and shall include a copy or a summary of the plan
of merger or consolidation. The affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least two-thirds
(2/3) of the outstanding capital stock of each corporation in the case of stock corporations or at
least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of non-stock corporations shall be necessary
for the approval of such plan. Any dissenting stockholder in stock corporations may exercise his
appraisal right in accordance with the Code: Provided, That if after the approval by the
stockholders of such plan, the board of directors decides to abandon the plan, the appraisal
right shall be extinguished.
Any amendment to the plan of merger or consolidation may be made, provided such
amendment is approved by majority vote of the respective boards of directors or trustees of all
the constituent corporations and ratified by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at
least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of two-thirds (2/3) of the members of
each of the constituent corporations. Such plan, together with any amendment, shall be
considered as the agreement of merger or consolidation. (n)
Sec. 78. Articles of merger or consolidation. - After the approval by the stockholders or
members as required by the preceding section, articles of merger or articles of consolidation
shall be executed by each of the constituent corporations, to be signed by the president or
vice-president and certified by the secretary or assistant secretary of each corporation setting
forth:
1. The plan of the merger or the plan of consolidation;
2. As to stock corporations, the number of shares outstanding, or in the case of non-stock
corporations, the number of members; and
3. As to each corporation, the number of shares or members voting for and against such plan,
respectively. (n)
Sec. 79. Effectivity of merger or consolidation. - The articles of merger or of consolidation,
signed and certified as herein above required, shall be submitted to the Securities and
Exchange Commission in quadruplicate for its approval: Provided, That in the case of merger or
consolidation of banks or banking institutions, building and loan associations, trust companies,
insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions and other special corporations
governed by special laws, the favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency
shall first be obtained. If the Commission is satisfied that the merger or consolidation of the
corporations concerned is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Code and existing laws, it
shall issue a certificate of merger or of consolidation, at which time the merger or consolidation
shall be effective.
If, upon investigation, the Securities and Exchange Commission has reason to believe that the
proposed merger or consolidation is contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Code
or existing laws, it shall set a hearing to give the corporations concerned the opportunity to be
heard. Written notice of the date, time and place of hearing shall be given to each constituent
corporation at least two (2) weeks before said hearing. The Commission shall thereafter
proceed as provided in this Code. (n)
Sec. 80. Effects or merger or consolidation. - The merger or consolidation shall have the
following effects:
1. The constituent corporations shall become a single corporation which, in case of merger,
shall be the surviving corporation designated in the plan of merger; and, in case of
consolidation, shall be the consolidated corporation designated in the plan of consolidation;
2. The separate existence of the constituent corporations shall cease, except that of the
surviving or the consolidated corporation;
3. The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall possess all the rights, privileges,
immunities and powers and shall be subject to all the duties and liabilities of a corporation
organized under this Code;
4. The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall thereupon and thereafter possess all the
rights, privileges, immunities and franchises of each of the constituent corporations; and all
property, real or personal, and all receivables due on whatever account, including subscriptions
to shares and other choses in action, and all and every other interest of, or belonging to, or due
to each constituent corporation, shall be deemed transferred to and vested in such surviving or
consolidated corporation without further act or deed; and
5. The surviving or consolidated corporation shall be responsible and liable for all the liabilities
and obligations of each of the constituent corporations in the same manner as if such surviving
or consolidated corporation had itself incurred such liabilities or obligations; and any pending
claim, action or proceeding brought by or against any of such constituent corporations may be
prosecuted by or against the surviving or consolidated corporation. The rights of creditors or
liens upon the property of any of such constituent corporations shall not be impaired by such
merger or consolidation. (n)
TITLE X
APPRAISAL RIGHT
Sec. 81. Instances of appraisal right. - Any stockholder of a corporation shall have the right to
dissent and demand payment of the fair value of his shares in the following instances:
1. In case any amendment to the articles of incorporation has the effect of changing or
restricting the rights of any stockholder or class of shares, or of authorizing preferences in any
respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any class, or of extending or shortening the
term of corporate existence;
2. In case of sale, lease, exchange, transfer, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of all or
substantially all of the corporate property and assets as provided in the Code; and
3. In case of merger or consolidation. (n)
Sec. 82. How right is exercised. - The appraisal right may be exercised by any stockholder who
shall have voted against the proposed corporate action, by making a written demand on the
corporation within thirty (30) days after the date on which the vote was taken for payment of the
fair value of his shares: Provided, That failure to make the demand within such period shall be
deemed a waiver of the appraisal right. If the proposed corporate action is implemented or
affected, the corporation shall pay to such stockholder, upon surrender of the certificate or
certificates of stock representing his shares, the fair value thereof as of the day prior to the date
on which the vote was taken, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in anticipation of such
corporate action.
If within a period of sixty (60) days from the date the corporate action was approved by the
stockholders, the withdrawing stockholder and the corporation cannot agree on the fair value of
the shares, it shall be determined and appraised by three (3) disinterested persons, one of
whom shall be named by the stockholder, another by the corporation, and the third by the two
thus chosen. The findings of the majority of the appraisers shall be final, and their award shall
be paid by the corporation within thirty (30) days after such award is made: Provided, That no
payment shall be made to any dissenting stockholder unless the corporation has unrestricted
retained earnings in its books to cover such payment: and Provided, further, That upon
payment by the corporation of the agreed or awarded price, the stockholder shall forthwith
transfer his shares to the corporation. (n)
Sec. 83. Effect of demand and termination of right. - From the time of demand for payment of
the fair value of a stockholder's shares until either the abandonment of the corporate action
involved or the purchase of the said shares by the corporation, all rights accruing to such
shares, including voting and dividend rights, shall be suspended in accordance with the
provisions of this Code, except the right of such stockholder to receive payment of the fair value
thereof: Provided, That if the dissenting stockholder is not paid the value of his shares within 30
days after the award, his voting and dividend rights shall immediately be restored. (n)
Sec. 84. When right to payment ceases. - No demand for payment under this Title may be
withdrawn unless the corporation consents thereto. If, however, such demand for payment is
withdrawn with the consent of the corporation, or if the proposed corporate action is abandoned
or rescinded by the corporation or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission
where such approval is necessary, or if the Securities and Exchange Commission determines
that such stockholder is not entitled to the appraisal right, then the right of said stockholder to
be paid the fair value of his shares shall cease, his status as a stockholder shall thereupon be
restored, and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on his shares shall be paid to
him. (n)
Sec. 85. Who bears costs of appraisal. - The costs and expenses of appraisal shall be borne by
the corporation, unless the fair value ascertained by the appraisers is approximately the same
as the price which the corporation may have offered to pay the stockholder, in which case they
shall be borne by the latter. In the case of an action to recover such fair value, all costs and
expenses shall be assessed against the corporation, unless the refusal of the stockholder to
receive payment was unjustified. (n)
Sec. 86. Notation on certificates; rights of transferee. - Within ten (10) days after demanding
payment for his shares, a dissenting stockholder shall submit the certificates of stock
representing his shares to the corporation for notation thereon that such shares are dissenting
shares. His failure to do so shall, at the option of the corporation, terminate his rights under this
Title. If shares represented by the certificates bearing such notation are transferred, and the
certificates consequently canceled, the rights of the transferor as a dissenting stockholder
under this Title shall cease and the transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder;
and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on such shares shall be paid to the
transferee. (n)

TITLE XI
NON-STOCK CORPORATIONS
Sec. 87. Definition. - For the purposes of this Code, a non-stock corporation is one where no
part of its income is distributable as dividends to its members, trustees, or officers, subject to the
provisions of this Code on dissolution: Provided, That any profit which a non-stock corporation
may obtain as an incident to its operations shall, whenever necessary or proper, be used for the
furtherance of the purpose or purposes for which the corporation was organized, subject to the
provisions of this Title.
The provisions governing stock corporation, when pertinent, shall be applicable to non-stock
corporations, except as may be covered by specific provisions of this Title. (n)
Sec. 88. Purposes. - Non-stock corporations may be formed or organized for charitable,
religious, educational, professional, cultural, fraternal, literary, scientific, social, civic service, or
similar purposes, like trade, industry, agricultural and like chambers, or any combination thereof,
subject to the special provisions of this Title governing particular classes of non-stock
corporations. (n)
Chapter I - MEMBERS
Sec. 89. Right to vote. - The right of the members of any class or classes to vote may be limited,
broadened or denied to the extent specified in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws.
Unless so limited, broadened or denied, each member, regardless of class, shall be entitled to
one vote.
Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, a member may vote by
proxy in accordance with the provisions of this Code. (n)
Voting by mail or other similar means by members of non-stock corporations may be authorized
by the by-laws of non-stock corporations with the approval of, and under such conditions which
may be prescribed by, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Sec. 90. Non-transferability of membership. - Membership in a non-stock corporation and all
rights arising therefrom are personal and non-transferable, unless the articles of incorporation
or the by-laws otherwise provide. (n)
Sec. 91. Termination of membership. - Membership shall be terminated in the manner and for
the causes provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws. Termination of membership
shall have the effect of extinguishing all rights of a member in the corporation or in its property,
unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws. (n)  
Chapter II - TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
Sec. 92. Election and term of trustees. - Unless otherwise provided in the articles of
incorporation or the by-laws, the board of trustees of non-stock corporations, which may be
more than fifteen (15) in number as may be fixed in their articles of incorporation or by-laws,
shall, as soon as organized, so classify themselves that the term of office of one-third (1/3) of
their number shall expire every year; and subsequent elections of trustees comprising one-third
(1/3) of the board of trustees shall be held annually and trustees so elected shall have a term of
three (3) years. Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies occurring before the expiration of a
particular term shall hold office only for the unexpired period.
No person shall be elected as trustee unless he is a member of the corporation.
Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, officers of a non-stock
corporation may be directly elected by the members. (n)
Sec. 93. Place of meetings. - The by-laws may provide that the members of a non-stock
corporation may hold their regular or special meetings at any place even outside the place
where the principal office of the corporation is located: Provided, That proper notice is sent to all
members indicating the date, time and place of the meeting: and Provided, further, That the
place of meeting shall be within the Philippines. (n)

Chapter III - DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS IN
NON-STOCK CORPORATIONS
Sec. 94. Rules of distribution. - In case dissolution of a non-stock corporation in accordance with
the provisions of this Code, its assets shall be applied and distributed as follows:
1. All liabilities and obligations of the corporation shall be paid, satisfied and discharged, or
adequate provision shall be made therefore;
2. Assets held by the corporation upon a condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance, and
which condition occurs by reason of the dissolution, shall be returned, transferred or conveyed
in accordance with such requirements;
3. Assets received and held by the corporation subject to limitations permitting their use only for
charitable, religious, benevolent, educational or similar purposes, but not held upon a condition
requiring return, transfer or conveyance by reason of the dissolution, shall be transferred or
conveyed to one or more corporations, societies or organizations engaged in activities in the
Philippines substantially similar to those of the dissolving corporation according to a plan of
distribution adopted pursuant to this Chapter;
4. Assets other than those mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, if any, shall be distributed in
accordance with the provisions of the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, to the extent that
the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, determine the distributive rights of members, or any
class or classes of members, or provide for distribution; and
5. In any other case, assets may be distributed to such persons, societies, organizations or
corporations, whether or not organized for profit, as may be specified in a plan of distribution
adopted pursuant to this Chapter. (n)
Sec. 95. Plan of distribution of assets. - A plan providing for the distribution of assets, not
inconsistent with the provisions of this Title, may be adopted by a non-stock corporation in the
process of dissolution in the following manner:
The board of trustees shall, by majority vote, adopt a resolution recommending a plan of
distribution and directing the submission thereof to a vote at a regular or special meeting of
members having voting rights. Written notice setting forth the proposed plan of distribution or a
summary thereof and the date, time and place of such meeting shall be given to each member
entitled to vote, within the time and in the manner provided in this Code for the giving of notice
of meetings to members. Such plan of distribution shall be adopted upon approval of at least
two-thirds (2/3) of the members having voting rights present or represented by proxy at such
meeting. (n)

TITLE XII
CLOSE CORPORATIONS
Sec. 96. Definition and applicability of Title. - A close corporation, within the meaning of this
Code, is one whose articles of incorporation provide that: (1) All the corporation's issued stock
of all classes, exclusive of treasury shares, shall be held of record by not more than a specified
number of persons, not exceeding twenty (20); (2) all the issued stock of all classes shall be
subject to one or more specified restrictions on transfer permitted by this Title; and (3) The
corporation shall not list in any stock exchange or make any public offering of any of its stock of
any class. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a corporation shall not be deemed a close corporation
when at least two-thirds (2/3) of its voting stock or voting rights is owned or controlled by
another corporation which is not a close corporation within the meaning of this Code.
Any corporation may be incorporated as a close corporation, except mining or oil companies,
stock exchanges, banks, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions and
corporations declared to be vested with public interest in accordance with the provisions of this
Code.
The provisions of this Title shall primarily govern close corporations: Provided, That the
provisions of other Titles of this Code shall apply suppletorily except insofar as this Title
otherwise provides.
Sec. 97. Articles of incorporation. - The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may
provide:
1. For a classification of shares or rights and the qualifications for owning or holding the same
and restrictions on their transfers as may be stated therein, subject to the provisions of the
following section;
2. For a classification of directors into one or more classes, each of whom may be voted for and
elected solely by a particular class of stock; and
3. For a greater quorum or voting requirements in meetings of stockholders or directors than
those provided in this Code.
The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may provide that the business of the
corporation shall be managed by the stockholders of the corporation rather than by a board of
directors. So long as this provision continues in effect:
1. No meeting of stockholders need be called to elect directors;
2. Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the stockholders of the corporation shall be
deemed to be directors for the purpose of applying the provisions of this Code; and
3. The stockholders of the corporation shall be subject to all liabilities of directors.
The articles of incorporation may likewise provide that all officers or employees or that specified
officers or employees shall be elected or appointed by the stockholders, instead of by the board
of directors.
Sec. 98. Validity of restrictions on transfer of shares. - Restrictions on the right to transfer
shares must appear in the articles of incorporation and in the by-laws as well as in the certificate
of stock; otherwise, the same shall not be binding on any purchaser thereof in good faith. Said
restrictions shall not be more onerous than granting the existing stockholders or the corporation
the option to purchase the shares of the transferring stockholder with such reasonable terms,
conditions or period stated therein. If upon the expiration of said period, the existing
stockholders or the corporation fails to exercise the option to purchase, the transferring
stockholder may sell his shares to any third person.
Sec. 99. Effects of issuance or transfer of stock in breach of qualifying conditions. -
1. If stock of a close corporation is issued or transferred to any person who is not entitled under
any provision of the articles of incorporation to be a holder of record of its stock, and if the
certificate for such stock conspicuously shows the qualifications of the persons entitled to be
holders of record thereof, such person is conclusively presumed to have notice of the fact of his
ineligibility to be a stockholder.
2. If the articles of incorporation of a close corporation states the number of persons, not
exceeding twenty (20), who are entitled to be holders of record of its stock, and if the certificate
for such stock conspicuously states such number, and if the issuance or transfer of stock to any
person would cause the stock to be held by more than such number of persons, the person to
whom such stock is issued or transferred is conclusively presumed to have notice of this fact.
3. If a stock certificate of any close corporation conspicuously shows a restriction on transfer of
stock of the corporation, the transferee of the stock is conclusively presumed to have notice of
the fact that he has acquired stock in violation of the restriction, if such acquisition violates the
restriction.
4. Whenever any person to whom stock of a close corporation has been issued or transferred
has, or is conclusively presumed under this section to have, notice either (a) that he is a person
not eligible to be a holder of stock of the corporation, or (b) that transfer of stock to him would
cause the stock of the corporation to be held by more than the number of persons permitted by
its articles of incorporation to hold stock of the corporation, or (c) that the transfer of stock is in
violation of a restriction on transfer of stock, the corporation may, at its option, refuse to register
the transfer of stock in the name of the transferee.
5. The provisions of subsection (4) shall not applicable if the transfer of stock, though contrary
to subsections (1), (2) of (3), has been consented to by all the stockholders of the close
corporation, or if the close corporation has amended its articles of incorporation in accordance
with this Title.
6. The term "transfer", as used in this section, is not limited to a transfer for value.
7. The provisions of this section shall not impair any right which the transferee may have to
rescind the transfer or to recover under any applicable warranty, express or implied.
Sec. 100. Agreements by stockholders. -
1. Agreements by and among stockholders executed before the formation and organization of a
close corporation, signed by all stockholders, shall survive the incorporation of such corporation
and shall continue to be valid and binding between and among such stockholders, if such be
their intent, to the extent that such agreements are not inconsistent with the articles of
incorporation, irrespective of where the provisions of such agreements are contained, except
those required by this Title to be embodied in said articles of incorporation.
2. An agreement between two or more stockholders, if in writing and signed by the parties
thereto, may provide that in exercising any voting rights, the shares held by them shall be voted
as therein provided, or as they may agree, or as determined in accordance with a procedure
agreed upon by them.
3. No provision in any written agreement signed by the stockholders, relating to any phase of
the corporate affairs, shall be invalidated as between the parties on the ground that its effect is
to make them partners among themselves.
4. A written agreement among some or all of the stockholders in a close corporation shall not be
invalidated on the ground that it so relates to the conduct of the business and affairs of the
corporation as to restrict or interfere with the discretion or powers of the board of directors:
Provided, That such agreement shall impose on the stockholders who are parties thereto the
liabilities for managerial acts imposed by this Code on directors.
5. To the extent that the stockholders are actively engaged in the management or operation of
the business and affairs of a close corporation, the stockholders shall be held to strict fiduciary
duties to each other and among themselves. Said stockholders shall be personally liable for
corporate torts unless the corporation has obtained reasonably adequate liability insurance.
Sec. 101. When board meeting is unnecessary or improperly held. - Unless the by-laws provide
otherwise, any action by the directors of a close corporation without a meeting shall
nevertheless be deemed valid if:
1. Before or after such action is taken, written consent thereto is signed by all the directors; or
2. All the stockholders have actual or implied knowledge of the action and make no prompt
objection thereto in writing; or
3. The directors are accustomed to take informal action with the express or implied
acquiescence of all the stockholders; or
4. All the directors have express or implied knowledge of the action in question and none of
them makes prompt objection thereto in writing.
If a director's meeting is held without proper call or notice, an action taken therein within the
corporate powers is deemed ratified by a director who failed to attend, unless he promptly files
his written objection with the secretary of the corporation after having knowledge thereof.
Sec. 102. Pre-emptive right in close corporations. - The pre-emptive right of stockholders in
close corporations shall extend to all stock to be issued, including reissuance of treasury
shares, whether for money, property or personal services, or in payment of corporate debts,
unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise.
Sec. 103. Amendment of articles of incorporation. - Any amendment to the articles of
incorporation which seeks to delete or remove any provision required by this Title to be
contained in the articles of incorporation or to reduce a quorum or voting requirement stated in
said articles of incorporation shall not be valid or effective unless approved by the affirmative
vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, whether with or without voting
rights, or of such greater proportion of shares as may be specifically provided in the articles of
incorporation for amending, deleting or removing any of the aforesaid provisions, at a meeting
duly called for the purpose.
Sec. 104. Deadlocks. - Notwithstanding any contrary provision in the articles of incorporation or
by-laws or agreement of stockholders of a close corporation, if the directors or stockholders are
so divided respecting the management of the corporation's business and affairs that the votes
required for any corporate action cannot be obtained, with the consequence that the business
and affairs of the corporation can no longer be conducted to the advantage of the stockholders
generally, the Securities and Exchange Commission, upon written petition by any stockholder,
shall have the power to arbitrate the dispute. In the exercise of such power, the Commission
shall have authority to make such order as it deems appropriate, including an order: (1)
canceling or altering any provision contained in the articles of incorporation, by-laws, or any
stockholder's agreement; (2) canceling, altering or enjoining any resolution or act of the
corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, or officers; (3) directing or prohibiting any act
of the corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, officers, or other persons party to the
action; (4) requiring the purchase at their fair value of shares of any stockholder, either by the
corporation regardless of the availability of unrestricted retained earnings in its books, or by the
other stockholders; (5) appointing a provisional director; (6) dissolving the corporation; or (7)
granting such other relief as the circumstances may warrant.
A provisional director shall be an impartial person who is neither a stockholder nor a creditor of
the corporation or of any subsidiary or affiliate of the corporation, and whose further
qualifications, if any, may be determined by the Commission. A provisional director is not a
receiver of the corporation and does not have the title and powers of a custodian or receiver. A
provisional director shall have all the rights and powers of a duly elected director of the
corporation, including the right to notice of and to vote at meetings of directors, until such time
as he shall be removed by order of the Commission or by all the stockholders. His compensation
shall be determined by agreement between him and the corporation subject to approval of the
Commission, which may fix his compensation in the absence of agreement or in the event of
disagreement between the provisional director and the corporation.
Sec. 105. Withdrawal of stockholder or dissolution of corporation. - In addition and without
prejudice to other rights and remedies available to a stockholder under this Title, any
stockholder of a close corporation may, for any reason, compel the said corporation to
purchase his shares at their fair value, which shall not be less than their par or issued value,
when the corporation has sufficient assets in its books to cover its debts and liabilities exclusive
of capital stock: Provided, That any stockholder of a close corporation may, by written petition to
the Securities and Exchange Commission, compel the dissolution of such corporation whenever
any of acts of the directors, officers or those in control of the corporation is illegal, or fraudulent,
or dishonest, or oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to the corporation or any stockholder, or
whenever corporate assets are being misapplied or wasted.
TITLE XIII
SPECIAL CORPORATIONS
Chapter I - Educational Corporations
Sec. 106. Incorporation. - Educational corporations shall be governed by special laws and by
the general provisions of this Code. (n)
Sec. 107. Pre-requisites to incorporation. - Except upon favorable recommendation of the
Ministry of Education and Culture, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept or
approve the articles of incorporation and by-laws of any educational institution. (168a)
Sec. 108. Board of trustees. - Trustees of educational institutions organized as non-stock
corporations shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15): Provided, however, That
the number of trustees shall be in multiples of five (5).
Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation on the by-laws, the board of trustees
of incorporated schools, colleges, or other institutions of learning shall, as soon as organized,
so classify themselves that the term of office of one-fifth (1/5) of their number shall expire every
year. Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies, occurring before the expiration of a particular
term, shall hold office only for the unexpired period. Trustees elected thereafter to fill vacancies
caused by expiration of term shall hold office for five (5) years. A majority of the trustees shall
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The powers and authority of trustees shall
be defined in the by-laws.
For institutions organized as stock corporations, the number and term of directors shall be
governed by the provisions on stock corporations. (169a)

Chapter II - RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS
Sec. 109. Classes of religious corporations. - Religious corporations may be incorporated by
one or more persons. Such corporations may be classified into corporations sole and religious
societies.
Religious corporations shall be governed by this Chapter and by the general provisions on
non-stock corporations insofar as they may be applicable. (n)
Sec. 110. Corporation sole. - For the purpose of administering and managing, as trustee, the
affairs, property and temporalities of any religious denomination, sect or church, a corporation
sole may be formed by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or other presiding
elder of such religious denomination, sect or church. (154a)
Sec. 111. Articles of incorporation. - In order to become a corporation sole, the chief
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of any religious denomination, sect
or church must file with the Securities and Exchange Commission articles of incorporation
setting forth the following:
1. That he is the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of his
religious denomination, sect or church and that he desires to become a corporation sole;
2. That the rules, regulations and discipline of his religious denomination, sect or church are not
inconsistent with his becoming a corporation sole and do not forbid it;
3. That as such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder, he is charged
with the administration of the temporalities and the management of the affairs, estate and
properties of his religious denomination, sect or church within his territorial jurisdiction,
describing such territorial jurisdiction;
4. The manner in which any vacancy occurring in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest,
minister, rabbi of presiding elder is required to be filled, according to the rules, regulations or
discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church to which he belongs; and
5. The place where the principal office of the corporation sole is to be established and located,
which place must be within the Philippines.
The articles of incorporation may include any other provision not contrary to law for the
regulation of the affairs of the corporation. (n)
Sec. 112. Submission of the articles of incorporation. - The articles of incorporation must be
verified, before filing, by affidavit or affirmation of the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister,
rabbi or presiding elder, as the case may be, and accompanied by a copy of the commission,
certificate of election or letter of appointment of such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister,
rabbi or presiding elder, duly certified to be correct by any notary public.
From and after the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission of the said articles of
incorporation, verified by affidavit or affirmation, and accompanied by the documents mentioned
in the preceding paragraph, such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding
elder shall become a corporation sole and all temporalities, estate and properties of the
religious denomination, sect or church theretofore administered or managed by him as such
chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder shall be held in trust by him as
a corporation sole, for the use, purpose, behalf and sole benefit of his religious denomination,
sect or church, including hospitals, schools, colleges, orphan asylums, parsonages and
cemeteries thereof. (n)
Sec. 113. Acquisition and alienation of property. - Any corporation sole may purchase and hold
real estate and personal property for its church, charitable, benevolent or educational
purposes, and may receive bequests or gifts for such purposes. Such corporation may sell or
mortgage real property held by it by obtaining an order for that purpose from the Court of First
Instance of the province where the property is situated upon proof made to the satisfaction of
the court that notice of the application for leave to sell or mortgage has been given by
publication or otherwise in such manner and for such time as said court may have directed, and
that it is to the interest of the corporation that leave to sell or mortgage should be granted. The
application for leave to sell or mortgage must be made by petition, duly verified, by the chief
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder acting as corporation sole, and may
be opposed by any member of the religious denomination, sect or church represented by the
corporation sole: Provided, That in cases where the rules, regulations and discipline of the
religious denomination, sect or church, religious society or order concerned represented by
such corporation sole regulate the method of acquiring, holding, selling and mortgaging real
estate and personal property, such rules, regulations and discipline shall control, and the
intervention of the courts shall not be necessary. (159a)
Sec. 114. Filling of vacancies. - The successors in office of any chief archbishop, bishop, priest,
minister, rabbi or presiding elder in a corporation sole shall become the corporation sole on
their accession to office and shall be permitted to transact business as such on the filing with
the Securities and Exchange Commission of a copy of their commission, certificate of election,
or letters of appointment, duly certified by any notary public.
During any vacancy in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding
elder of any religious denomination, sect or church incorporated as a corporation sole, the
person or persons authorized and empowered by the rules, regulations or discipline of the
religious denomination, sect or church represented by the corporation sole to administer the
temporalities and manage the affairs, estate and properties of the corporation sole during the
vacancy shall exercise all the powers and authority of the corporation sole during such vacancy.
(158a)
Sec. 115. Dissolution. - A corporation sole may be dissolved and its affairs settled voluntarily by
submitting to the Securities and Exchange Commission a verified declaration of dissolution.
The declaration of dissolution shall set forth:
1. The name of the corporation;
2. The reason for dissolution and winding up;
3. The authorization for the dissolution of the corporation by the particular religious
denomination, sect or church;
4. The names and addresses of the persons who are to supervise the winding up of the affairs
of the corporation.
Upon approval of such declaration of dissolution by the Securities and Exchange Commission,
the corporation shall cease to carry on its operations except for the purpose of winding up its
affairs. (n)
Sec. 116. Religious societies. - Any religious society or religious order, or any diocese, synod,
or district organization of any religious denomination, sect or church, unless forbidden by the
constitution, rules, regulations, or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church of
which it is a part, or by competent authority, may, upon written consent and/or by an affirmative
vote at a meeting called for the purpose of at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership,
incorporate for the administration of its temporalities or for the management of its affairs,
properties and estate by filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, articles of
incorporation verified by the affidavit of the presiding elder, secretary, or clerk or other member
of such religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization of the
religious denomination, sect or church, setting forth the following:
1. That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization is a
religious organization of a religious denomination, sect or church;
2. That at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership have given their written consent or have voted
to incorporate, at a duly convened meeting of the body;
3. That the incorporation of the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district
organization desiring to incorporate is not forbidden by competent authority or by the
constitution, rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect, or church of
which it forms a part;
4. That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization desires
to incorporate for the administration of its affairs, properties and estate;
5. The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be established and located, which
place must be within the Philippines; and
6. The names, nationalities, and residences of the trustees elected by the religious society or
religious order, or the diocese, synod, or district organization to serve for the first year or such
other period as may be prescribed by the laws of the religious society or religious order, or of
the diocese, synod, or district organization, the board of trustees to be not less than five (5) nor
more than fifteen (15). (160a)
TITLE XIV
DISSOLUTION
Sec. 117. Methods of dissolution. - A corporation formed or organized under the provisions of
this Code may be dissolved voluntarily or involuntarily. (n)
Sec. 118. Voluntary dissolution where no creditors are affected. - If dissolution of a corporation
does not prejudice the rights of any creditor having a claim against it, the dissolution may be
effected by majority vote of the board of directors or trustees, and by a resolution duly adopted
by the affirmative vote of the stockholders owning at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding
capital stock or of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members of a meeting to be held upon call of
the directors or trustees after publication of the notice of time, place and object of the meeting
for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the place where the principal office
of said corporation is located; and if no newspaper is published in such place, then in a
newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, after sending such notice to each
stockholder or member either by registered mail or by personal delivery at least thirty (30) days
prior to said meeting. A copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution shall be certified by a
majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the
corporation. The Securities and Exchange Commission shall thereupon issue the certificate of
dissolution. (62a)
Sec. 119. Voluntary dissolution where creditors are affected. - Where the dissolution of a
corporation may prejudice the rights of any creditor, the petition for dissolution shall be filed with
the Securities and Exchange Commission. The petition shall be signed by a majority of its board
of directors or trustees or other officers having the management of its affairs, verified by its
president or secretary or one of its directors or trustees, and shall set forth all claims and
demands against it, and that its dissolution was resolved upon by the affirmative vote of the
stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or by at least
two-thirds (2/3) of the members at a meeting of its stockholders or members called for that
purpose.
If the petition is sufficient in form and substance, the Commission shall, by an order reciting the
purpose of the petition, fix a date on or before which objections thereto may be filed by any
person, which date shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than sixty (60) days after the
entry of the order. Before such date, a copy of the order shall be published at least once a week
for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published in the
municipality or city where the principal office of the corporation is situated, or if there be no such
newspaper, then in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, and a similar copy
shall be posted for three (3) consecutive weeks in three (3) public places in such municipality or
city.
Upon five (5) day's notice, given after the date on which the right to file objections as fixed in the
order has expired, the Commission shall proceed to hear the petition and try any issue made by
the objections filed; and if no such objection is sufficient, and the material allegations of the
petition are true, it shall render judgment dissolving the corporation and directing such
disposition of its assets as justice requires, and may appoint a receiver to collect such assets
and pay the debts of the corporation. (Rule 104, RCa)
Sec. 120. Dissolution by shortening corporate term. - A voluntary dissolution may be effected by
amending the articles of incorporation to shorten the corporate term pursuant to the provisions
of this Code. A copy of the amended articles of incorporation shall be submitted to the
Securities and Exchange Commission in accordance with this Code. Upon approval of the
amended articles of incorporation of the expiration of the shortened term, as the case may be,
the corporation shall be deemed dissolved without any further proceedings, subject to the
provisions of this Code on liquidation. (n)
Sec. 121. Involuntary dissolution. - A corporation may be dissolved by the Securities and
Exchange Commission upon filing of a verified complaint and after proper notice and hearing on
the grounds provided by existing laws, rules and regulations. (n)
Sec. 122. Corporate liquidation. - Every corporation whose charter expires by its own limitation
or is annulled by forfeiture or otherwise, or whose corporate existence for other purposes is
terminated in any other manner, shall nevertheless be continued as a body corporate for three
(3) years after the time when it would have been so dissolved, for the purpose of prosecuting
and defending suits by or against it and enabling it to settle and close its affairs, to dispose of
and convey its property and to distribute its assets, but not for the purpose of continuing the
business for which it was established.
At any time during said three (3) years, the corporation is authorized and empowered to convey
all of its property to trustees for the benefit of stockholders, members, creditors, and other
persons in interest. From and after any such conveyance by the corporation of its property in
trust for the benefit of its stockholders, members, creditors and others in interest, all interest
which the corporation had in the property terminates, the legal interest vests in the trustees, and
the beneficial interest in the stockholders, members, creditors or other persons in interest.
Upon the winding up of the corporate affairs, any asset distributable to any creditor or
stockholder or member who is unknown or cannot be found shall be escheated to the city or
municipality where such assets are located.
Except by decrease of capital stock and as otherwise allowed by this Code, no corporation shall
distribute any of its assets or property except upon lawful dissolution and after payment of all its
debts and liabilities. (77a, 89a, 16a)
TITLE XV
FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
Sec. 123. Definition and rights of foreign corporations. - For the purposes of this Code, a
foreign corporation is one formed, organized or existing under any laws other than those of the
Philippines and whose laws allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do business in its own
country or state. It shall have the right to transact business in the Philippines after it shall have
obtained a license to transact business in this country in accordance with this Code and a
certificate of authority from the appropriate government agency. (n)
Sec. 124. Application to existing foreign corporations. - Every foreign corporation which on the
date of the effectivity of this Code is authorized to do business in the Philippines under a license
therefore issued to it, shall continue to have such authority under the terms and condition of its
license, subject to the provisions of this Code and other special laws. (n)
Sec. 125. Application for a license. - A foreign corporation applying for a license to transact
business in the Philippines shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission a copy of its
articles of incorporation and by-laws, certified in accordance with law, and their translation to an
official language of the Philippines, if necessary. The application shall be under oath and,
unless already stated in its articles of incorporation, shall specifically set forth the following:
1. The date and term of incorporation;
2. The address, including the street number, of the principal office of the corporation in the
country or state of incorporation;
3. The name and address of its resident agent authorized to accept summons and process in all
legal proceedings and, pending the establishment of a local office, all notices affecting the
corporation;
4. The place in the Philippines where the corporation intends to operate;
5. The specific purpose or purposes which the corporation intends to pursue in the transaction
of its business in the Philippines: Provided, That said purpose or purposes are those specifically
stated in the certificate of authority issued by the appropriate government agency;
6. The names and addresses of the present directors and officers of the corporation;
7. A statement of its authorized capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the
corporation has authority to issue, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par
value, and series, if any;
8. A statement of its outstanding capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the
corporation has issued, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par value, and
series, if any;
9. A statement of the amount actually paid in; and
10. Such additional information as may be necessary or appropriate in order to enable the
Securities and Exchange Commission to determine whether such corporation is entitled to a
license to transact business in the Philippines, and to determine and assess the fees payable.
Attached to the application for license shall be a duly executed certificate under oath by the
authorized official or officials of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, attesting to the fact that the
laws of the country or state of the applicant allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do
business therein, and that the applicant is an existing corporation in good standing. If such
certificate is in a foreign language, a translation thereof in English under oath of the translator
shall be attached thereto.
The application for a license to transact business in the Philippines shall likewise be
accompanied by a statement under oath of the president or any other person authorized by the
corporation, showing to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission and other
governmental agency in the proper cases that the applicant is solvent and in sound financial
condition, and setting forth the assets and liabilities of the corporation as of the date not
exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application.
Foreign banking, financial and insurance corporations shall, in addition to the above
requirements, comply with the provisions of existing laws applicable to them. In the case of all
other foreign corporations, no application for license to transact business in the Philippines shall
be accepted by the Securities and Exchange Commission without previous authority from the
appropriate government agency, whenever required by law. (68a)
Sec. 126. Issuance of a license. - If the Securities and Exchange Commission is satisfied that
the applicant has complied with all the requirements of this Code and other special laws, rules
and regulations, the Commission shall issue a license to the applicant to transact business in
the Philippines for the purpose or purposes specified in such license. Upon issuance of the
license, such foreign corporation may commence to transact business in the Philippines and
continue to do so for as long as it retains its authority to act as a corporation under the laws of
the country or state of its incorporation, unless such license is sooner surrendered, revoked,
suspended or annulled in accordance with this Code or other special laws.
Within sixty (60) days after the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines,
the license, except foreign banking or insurance corporation, shall deposit with the Securities
and Exchange Commission for the benefit of present and future creditors of the licensee in the
Philippines, securities satisfactory to the Securities and Exchange Commission, consisting of
bonds or other evidence of indebtedness of the Government of the Philippines, its political
subdivisions and instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and
entities, shares of stock in "registered enterprises" as this term is defined in Republic Act No.
5186, shares of stock in domestic corporations registered in the stock exchange, or shares of
stock in domestic insurance companies and banks, or any combination of these kinds of
securities, with an actual market value of at least one hundred thousand (P100,000.) pesos;
Provided, however, That within six (6) months after each fiscal year of the licensee, the
Securities and Exchange Commission shall require the licensee to deposit additional securities
equivalent in actual market value to two (2%) percent of the amount by which the licensee's
gross income for that fiscal year exceeds five million (P5,000,000.00) pesos. The Securities and
Exchange Commission shall also require deposit of additional securities if the actual market
value of the securities on deposit has decreased by at least ten (10%) percent of their actual
market value at the time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may at
its discretion release part of the additional securities deposited with it if the gross income of the
licensee has decreased, or if the actual market value of the total securities on deposit has
increased, by more than ten (10%) percent of the actual market value of the securities at the
time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may, from time to time,
allow the licensee to substitute other securities for those already on deposit as long as the
licensee is solvent. Such licensee shall be entitled to collect the interest or dividends on the
securities deposited. In the event the licensee ceases to do business in the Philippines, the
securities deposited as aforesaid shall be returned, upon the licensee's application therefor and
upon proof to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission that the licensee has
no liability to Philippine residents, including the Government of the Republic of the Philippines.
(n)
Sec. 127. Who may be a resident agent. - A resident agent may be either an individual residing
in the Philippines or a domestic corporation lawfully transacting business in the Philippines:
Provided, That in the case of an individual, he must be of good moral character and of sound
financial standing. (n)
Sec. 128. Resident agent; service of process. - The Securities and Exchange Commission shall
require as a condition precedent to the issuance of the license to transact business in the
Philippines by any foreign corporation that such corporation file with the Securities and
Exchange Commission a written power of attorney designating some person who must be a
resident of the Philippines, on whom any summons and other legal processes may be served in
all actions or other legal proceedings against such corporation, and consenting that service
upon such resident agent shall be admitted and held as valid as if served upon the duly
authorized officers of the foreign corporation at its home office. Any such foreign corporation
shall likewise execute and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission an agreement or
stipulation, executed by the proper authorities of said corporation, in form and substance as
follows:
"The (name of foreign corporation) does hereby stipulate and agree, in consideration of its
being granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission a license to transact business in the
Philippines, that if at any time said corporation shall cease to transact business in the
Philippines, or shall be without any resident agent in the Philippines on whom any summons or
other legal processes may be served, then in any action or proceeding arising out of any
business or transaction which occurred in the Philippines, service of any summons or other legal
process may be made upon the Securities and Exchange Commission and that such service
shall have the same force and effect as if made upon the duly-authorized officers of the
corporation at its home office."
Whenever such service of summons or other process shall be made upon the Securities and
Exchange Commission, the Commission shall, within ten (10) days thereafter, transmit by mail a
copy of such summons or other legal process to the corporation at its home or principal office.
The sending of such copy by the Commission shall be necessary part of and shall complete
such service. All expenses incurred by the Commission for such service shall be paid in
advance by the party at whose instance the service is made.
In case of a change of address of the resident agent, it shall be his or its duty to immediately
notify in writing the Securities and Exchange Commission of the new address. (72a; and n)
Sec. 129. Law applicable. - Any foreign corporation lawfully doing business in the Philippines
shall be bound by all laws, rules and regulations applicable to domestic corporations of the
same class, except such only as provide for the creation, formation, organization or dissolution
of corporations or those which fix the relations, liabilities, responsibilities, or duties of
stockholders, members, or officers of corporations to each other or to the corporation. (73a)
Sec. 130. Amendments to articles of incorporation or by-laws of foreign corporations. -
Whenever the articles of incorporation or by-laws of a foreign corporation authorized to transact
business in the Philippines are amended, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days
after the amendment becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and
in the proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a duly authenticated copy of the
articles of incorporation or by-laws, as amended, indicating clearly in capital letters or by
underscoring the change or changes made, duly certified by the authorized official or officials of
the country or state of incorporation. The filing thereof shall not of itself enlarge or alter the
purpose or purposes for which such corporation is authorized to transact business in the
Philippines. (n)
Sec. 131. Amended license. - A foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the
Philippines shall obtain an amended license in the event it changes its corporate name, or
desires to pursue in the Philippines other or additional purposes, by submitting an application
therefor to the Securities and Exchange Commission, favorably endorsed by the appropriate
government agency in the proper cases. (n)
Sec. 132. Merger or consolidation involving a foreign corporation licensed in the Philippines. -
One or more foreign corporations authorized to transact business in the Philippines may merge
or consolidate with any domestic corporation or corporations if such is permitted under
Philippine laws and by the law of its incorporation: Provided, That the requirements on merger
or consolidation as provided in this Code are followed.
Whenever a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall be a
party to a merger or consolidation in its home country or state as permitted by the law of its
incorporation, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after such merger or
consolidation becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and in
proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a copy of the articles of merger or
consolidation duly authenticated by the proper official or officials of the country or state under
the laws of which merger or consolidation was effected: Provided, however, That if the absorbed
corporation is the foreign corporation doing business in the Philippines, the latter shall at the
same time file a petition for withdrawal of it license in accordance with this Title. (n)
Sec. 133. Doing business without a license. - No foreign corporation transacting business in the
Philippines without a license, or its successors or assigns, shall be permitted to maintain or
intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency of the
Philippines; but such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before Philippine courts or
administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippine laws. (69a)
Sec. 134. Revocation of license. - Without prejudice to other grounds provided by special laws,
the license of a foreign corporation to transact business in the Philippines may be revoked or
suspended by the Securities and Exchange Commission upon any of the following grounds:
1. Failure to file its annual report or pay any fees as required by this Code;
2. Failure to appoint and maintain a resident agent in the Philippines as required by this Title;
3. Failure, after change of its resident agent or of his address, to submit to the Securities and
Exchange Commission a statement of such change as required by this Title;
4. Failure to submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission an authenticated copy of any
amendment to its articles of incorporation or by-laws or of any articles of merger or
consolidation within the time prescribed by this Title;
5. A misrepresentation of any material matter in any application, report, affidavit or other
document submitted by such corporation pursuant to this Title;
6. Failure to pay any and all taxes, imposts, assessments or penalties, if any, lawfully due to the
Philippine Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions;
7. Transacting business in the Philippines outside of the purpose or purposes for which such
corporation is authorized under its license;
8. Transacting business in the Philippines as agent of or acting for and in behalf of any foreign
corporation or entity not duly licensed to do business in the Philippines; or
9. Any other ground as would render it unfit to transact business in the Philippines. (n)
Sec. 135. Issuance of certificate of revocation. - Upon the revocation of any such license to
transact business in the Philippines, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall issue a
corresponding certificate of revocation, furnishing a copy thereof to the appropriate government
agency in the proper cases.
The Securities and Exchange Commission shall also mail to the corporation at its registered
office in the Philippines a notice of such revocation accompanied by a copy of the certificate of
revocation. (n)
Sec. 136. Withdrawal of foreign corporations. - Subject to existing laws and regulations, a
foreign corporation licensed to transact business in the Philippines may be allowed to withdraw
from the Philippines by filing a petition for withdrawal of license. No certificate of withdrawal shall
be issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission unless all the following requirements are
met;
1. All claims which have accrued in the Philippines have been paid, compromised or settled;
2. All taxes, imposts, assessments, and penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine
Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions have been paid; and
3. The petition for withdrawal of license has been published once a week for three (3)
consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.

TITLE XVI
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Sec. 137. Outstanding capital stock defined. - The term "outstanding capital stock", as used in
this Code, means the total shares of stock issued under binding subscription agreements to
subscribers or stockholders, whether or not fully or partially paid, except treasury shares. (n)
Sec. 138. Designation of governing boards. - The provisions of specific provisions of this Code
to the contrary notwithstanding, non-stock or special corporations may, through their articles of
incorporation or their by-laws, designate their governing boards by any name other than as
board of trustees. (n)
Sec. 139. Incorporation and other fees. - The Securities and Exchange Commission is hereby
authorized to collect and receive fees as authorized by law or by rules and regulations
promulgated by the Commission. (n)
Sec. 140. Stock ownership in certain corporations. - Pursuant to the duties specified by Article
XIV of the Constitution, the National Economic and Development Authority shall, from time to
time, make a determination of whether the corporate vehicle has been used by any corporation
or by business or industry to frustrate the provisions thereof or of applicable laws, and shall
submit to the Batasang Pambansa, whenever deemed necessary, a report of its findings,
including recommendations for their prevention or correction.
Maximum limits may be set by the Batasang Pambansa for stockholdings in corporations
declared by it to be vested with a public interest pursuant to the provisions of this section,
belonging to individuals or groups of individuals related to each other by consanguinity or
affinity or by close business interests, or whenever it is necessary to achieve national
objectives, prevent illegal monopolies or combinations in restraint or trade, or to implement
national economic policies declared in laws, rules and regulations designed to promote the
general welfare and foster economic development.
In recommending to the Batasang Pambansa corporations, business or industries to be
declared vested with a public interest and in formulating proposals for limitations on stock
ownership, the National Economic and Development Authority shall consider the type and
nature of the industry, the size of the enterprise, the economies of scale, the geographic
location, the extent of Filipino ownership, the labor intensity of the activity, the export potential,
as well as other factors which are germane to the realization and promotion of business and
industry.
Sec. 141. Annual report or corporations. - Every corporation, domestic or foreign, lawfully doing
business in the Philippines shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission an annual
report of its operations, together with a financial statement of its assets and liabilities, certified
by any independent certified public accountant in appropriate cases, covering the preceding
fiscal year and such other requirements as the Securities and Exchange Commission may
require. Such report shall be submitted within such period as may be prescribed by the
Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)
Sec. 142. Confidential nature of examination results. - All interrogatories propounded by the
Securities and Exchange Commission and the answers thereto, as well as the results of any
examination made by the Commission or by any other official authorized by law to make an
examination of the operations, books and records of any corporation, shall be kept strictly
confidential, except insofar as the law may require the same to be made public or where such
interrogatories, answers or results are necessary to be presented as evidence before any court.
(n)
Sec. 143. Rule-making power of the Securities and Exchange Commission. - The Securities and
Exchange Commission shall have the power and authority to implement the provisions of this
Code, and to promulgate rules and regulations reasonably necessary to enable it to perform its
duties hereunder, particularly in the prevention of fraud and abuses on the part of the
controlling stockholders, members, directors, trustees or officers. (n)
Sec. 144. Violations of the Code. - Violations of any of the provisions of this Code or its
amendments not otherwise specifically penalized therein shall be punished by a fine of not less
than one thousand (P1,000.00) pesos but not more than ten thousand (P10,000.00) pesos or
by imprisonment for not less than thirty (30) days but not more than five (5) years, or both, in
the discretion of the court. If the violation is committed by a corporation, the same may, after
notice and hearing, be dissolved in appropriate proceedings before the Securities and
Exchange Commission: Provided, That such dissolution shall not preclude the institution of
appropriate action against the director, trustee or officer of the corporation responsible for said
violation: Provided, further, That nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal the other
causes for dissolution of a corporation provided in this Code. (190 1/2 a)
Sec. 145. Amendment or repeal. - No right or remedy in favor of or against any corporation, its
stockholders, members, directors, trustees, or officers, nor any liability incurred by any such
corporation, stockholders, members, directors, trustees, or officers, shall be removed or
impaired either by the subsequent dissolution of said corporation or by any subsequent
amendment or repeal of this Code or of any part thereof. (n)
Sec. 146. Repealing clause. - Except as expressly provided by this Code, all laws or parts
thereof inconsistent with any provision of this Code shall be deemed repealed. (n)
Sec. 147. Separability of provisions. - Should any provision of this Code or any part thereof be
declared invalid or unconstitutional, the other provisions, so far as they are separable, shall
remain in force. (n)
Sec. 148. Applicability to existing corporations. - All corporations lawfully existing and doing
business in the Philippines on the date of the effectivity of this Code and heretofore authorized,
licensed or registered by the Securities and Exchange Commission, shall be deemed to have
been authorized, licensed or registered under the provisions of this Code, subject to the terms
and conditions of its license, and shall be governed by the provisions hereof: Provided, That if
any such corporation is affected by the new requirements of this Code, said corporation shall,
unless otherwise herein provided, be given a period of not more than two (2) years from the
effectivity of this Code within which to comply with the same. (n)
Sec. 149. Effectivity. - This Code shall take effect immediately upon its approval.

Approved: May 1, 1980